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We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African(More)
To investigate the role of innate immunity in variable efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in Malawi and the United Kingdom, we examined 24-h tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses to mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs). The rank order in stimulatory potency for different PPDs was the same(More)
  • P E Fine, S Floyd, +7 authors J M Ponnighaus
  • 2001
More than 36000 individuals living in rural Malawi were skin tested with antigens derived from 12 different species of environmental mycobacteria. Most were simultaneously tested with RT23 tuberculin, and all were followed up for both tuberculosis and leprosy incidence. Skin test results indicated widespread sensitivity to the environmental antigens, in(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of BCG vaccines against pulmonary tuberculosis varies between populations, showing no protection in Malawi but 50-80% protection in the UK. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, randomised controlled studies were set up to measure vaccine-induced immune responsiveness to mycobacterial antigens in both(More)
We conducted the first molecular study of tuberculosis (TB) to estimate the role of household contact and transmission from HIV-positive putative source contacts (PSCs) in a high HIV-prevalence area. TB patients in a long-term population-based study in Malawi were asked about past contact with TB. DNA fingerprinting was used to define clusters of cases with(More)
We report a large study of the effect of BCG vaccination on the in vitro 6-day whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response to antigens from eight species of mycobacteria among schoolchildren in south-eastern England, where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is highly protective against pulmonary tuberculosis, and among young adults in northern(More)
BACKGROUND An IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens is an effective biomarker for M. tuberculosis infection but it cannot discriminate between latent TB infection and active TB disease. Combining a number of cytokine/chemokine responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may enable differentiation of latent TB from active disease. METHODS(More)
SETTING Rural northern Malawi, where vaccination with BCG Glaxo (1077) provides protection against leprosy but not against pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the patterns of responsiveness to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) in terms of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)(More)
BACKGROUND DNA fingerprint patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains vary within individuals and between epidemiologically linked individuals because of pattern evolution, new infections, and laboratory error. We explored the importance of these factors. METHODS Cultures from individuals in northern Malawi who had been diagnosed with tuberculosis(More)
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