Steven D. Bain

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Thrombospondin (TSP) 2, and its close relative TSP1, are extracellular proteins whose functions are complex, poorly understood, and controversial. In an attempt to determine the function of TSP2, we disrupted the Thbs2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and generated TSP2-null mice by blastocyst injection and appropriate breeding of(More)
Although the skeleton's adaptability to load-bearing has been recognized for over a century, the specific mechanical components responsible for strengthening it have not been identified. Here we show that after mechanically stimulating the hindlimbs of adult sheep on a daily basis for a year with 20-minute bursts of very-low-magnitude, high-frequency(More)
The means by which muscle function modulates bone homeostasis is poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we have developed a novel murine model of unilateral transient hindlimb muscle paralysis using botulinum toxin A (Botox). Female C57BL/6 mice (16 weeks) received IM injections of either saline or Botox (n = 10 each) in both the quadriceps and(More)
We have previously shown that transient paralysis of murine hindlimb muscles causes profound degradation of both trabecular and cortical bone in the adjacent skeleton within 3 weeks. Morphologically, the acute loss of bone tissue appeared to arise primarily due to osteoclastic bone resorption. Given that the loss of muscle function in this model is(More)
In the mouse, ovariectomy (OVX) leads to significant reductions in cancellous bone volume while estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) replacement not only prevents bone loss but can increase bone formation. As the E2-dependent increase in bone formation would require the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast precursors, we hypothesized that E2 regulates(More)
This study examined the effects of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of liver and bone, and on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in liver and bone, as well as the relationship of these factors to bone metabolism. Day-old male broiler chicks were given a semipurified diet containing one of four lipid sources: soybean oil(More)
The skeleton's ability to withstand the extremes of physical activity is achieved in large part by its capacity to perceive and respond to small changes in its mechanical environment. Strains generated by functional activity would represent an efficient, epigenetic parameter by which the bone cell population could assess the skeleton's structural(More)
Departing from the premise that it is the large-amplitude signals inherent to intense functional activity that define bone morphology, we propose that it is the far lower magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals that continually barrage the skeleton during longer term activities such as standing, which regulate skeletal architecture. To examine this(More)
A unilateral injection of botulinum toxin A (BTxA) in the calf induces paralysis and profound loss of ipsalateral trabecular bone within days. However, the cellular mechanism underlying acute muscle paralysis-induced bone loss (MPIBL) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that MPIBL arises via rapid and extensive osteoclastogenesis. We performed a series of(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of several osteogenic factors which affect bone growth and fracture healing. This study examined the potential of hydroxyapatite (HA) rods with interconnected pores of mean diameter 200 microns to be used as a matrix for the release of PDGF to enhance bone ingrowth into the implant. In the initial phase of the(More)