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In order to get a systematic picture of how various hearing impairments and neurologic disorders may affect sound localization, psychophysical spatial- and lateralization-discrimination measurements were performed on 140 subjects, including 69 with different types of hearing impairments, 32 with neurological diseases, and 39 with normal hearing. The(More)
We present a model for tone-in-noise detection at low frequencies that includes a physiologically realistic mechanism for processing the information in neural discharge times. The proposed model exploits the frequency-dependent phase properties of the tuned filters in the auditory periphery and uses cross-auditory-nerve-fiber coincidence detection to(More)
The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed in several distinct sites in the CNS, in cholinergic and enteric ganglia, and in a small subpopulation of neurons within sympathetic ganglia. Previous studies on the human VIP gene indicate that transcription in neural crest-derived neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma cell lines is controlled(More)
The effects of recombinant human alpha tumor necrosis factor (alpha-TNF) were compared with those of cytotoxic serum from patients with the acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in myelinated cultures containing only rat Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Alpha-TNF did not damage rat peripheral nervous system tissue in culture. These observations(More)
Neuronal differentiation was induced in cultures of the human neuroblastoma cell line subclone SH-SY5Y by 14-day treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP), retinoic acid, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). An approximate 4-fold increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with retinoic acid,(More)
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Sound source lateralization can be accomplished in many real world environments with a simple cross-correlation model. The precedence effect predicts that in certain situations, such as sounds with a single loud reflection, sound source lateralization performance of normal hearing listeners could be better than performance predicted by a simple(More)