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In 1995, Beck and Katz (B&K) instructed the profession on ''What to do (and not to do) with time-series, cross-section data,'' and almost instantly their prescriptions became the new orthodoxy for practitioners. Our assessment of the intellectual aftermath of this paper, however, does not inspire confidence in the conclusions reached during the past decade.(More)
All recent studies of bird phylogeny have produced poorly resolved relationships among the orders of Neoaves, the lineage that includes most modern birds. This "bush" result suggests the possibility of an explosive and potentially unresolvable evolutionary radiation. However, simultaneous radiations of multiple lineages are thought to be rare or nonexistent(More)
Comparative developmental biologists have proposed models to describe patterns of conserved features in vertebrate ontogeny. The hourglass model suggests evolutionary change is most difficult at an intermediate "phylotypic" stage, the adaptive penetrance model suggests change is easiest at an intermediate stage, and the early conservation model suggests(More)
This study presents a statistical test for modularity in the context of relative timing of developmental events. The test assesses whether sets of developmental events show special phylogenetic conservation of rank order. The test statistic is the correlation coefficient of developmental ranks of the N events of the hypothesized module across taxa. The null(More)
Independent evolutionary lineages often display similar characteristics in comparable environments. Three kinds of historical hypotheses could explain this convergence. The first is adaptive and evolutionary: nonrandom patterns may result from analogous evolutionary responses to shared conditions. The second explanation is exaptive and ecological: species(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an(More)