Steven C. Ludwig

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BACKGROUND CONTEXT Vertebral osteomyelitis can be successfully treated with spinal immobilization and parenteral antibiotics. Failure of medical therapy may necessitate surgical treatment consisting of anterior debridement and structural anterior column reconstruction. Autologous structural bone graft has traditionally been the gold standard in anterior(More)
STUDY DESIGN Three noncontiguous spinal implant sites in 1 rabbit were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus and local antibiotic prophylaxis was given with gentamicin in controlled-release microspheres (poly(lactic-coglycolic-acid) [PLGA]). Postoperative biomaterial-centered infection on and around the titanium rods was assessed using standard bacterial(More)
STUDY DESIGN Retrospective radiographic review. OBJECTIVE To determine whether clinical factors or common classification systems can predict the radiologic outcome of short-segment thoracolumbar fracture fixation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previous reports have indicated that short-segment thoracolumbar fracture fixation might not be appropriate for(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cadaveric study. OBJECTIVE Identifying anatomic structures at risk for injury during direct lateral transpsoas approach to the spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Direct lateral transpsoas approach is a novel technique that has been described for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Potential risks include damage to genitofemoral nerve and(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Conditions of the atlantoaxial complex requiring internal stabilization can result from trauma, malignancy, inflammatory diseases, and congenital malformation. Several techniques have been used for stabilization and fusion. Posterior wiring is biomechanically inferior to screw fixation. C1 lateral mass screws and C1 posterior arch screws(More)
Minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques have evolved tremendously over the past decade. Although there have been numerous reports of lumbar instrumentation performed via a percutaneous or minimal incisional route, to date there have been no reports of minimally invasive iliac screw placement. A method was developed for accurate placement of(More)
In a reliable signalling system, individual quality is expected to mediate the costs associated with ornamental displays, with relatively lower costs being paid by individuals of higher quality. These relative costs should depend not only on individual quality, but also on levels of intra-sexual competition. We explored the current and delayed effects that(More)
STUDY DESIGN A retrospective review. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to document a series of cases of neurologic deficit following percutaneous vertebral stabilization, to identify patterns of neurologic injury, and to describe potential methods for avoiding these injuries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Percutaneous vertebral stabilization(More)
BACKGROUND Lateral mass screw fixation with plates or rods has become the standard method of posterior cervical spine fixation and stabilization for a variety of surgical indications. Despite ubiquitous usage, the safety and efficacy of this technique have not yet been established sufficiently to permit "on-label" U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval(More)