Steven C. Cunningham

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Male Fischer-344 rats (n = 38) at 5 months old were tested in a Morris water maze to determine if treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine (PHEN), would overcome a learning impairment induced by scopolamine (SCOP), a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist. Each rat was randomly assigned to one of five groups to receive two intraperitoneal(More)
The diagnosis and management of CRLM is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal outcomes. Over the past several decades, the 5-year survival following resection of CRLM has increased and the criteria for resection have broadened substantially. Even patients with multiple, bilateral CRLM, previously thought unresectable, may now be(More)
The optimal surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma on well-compensated cirrhosis is controversial. Advocates of liver transplantation cite better long-term survival, lower risk of recurrence, and the ability of transplantation to treat both the HCC and the underlying liver cirrhosis. Transplantation, however, is not universally available to all(More)
The proportions both of elderly patients in the world and of elderly patients with cancer are both increasing. In the evaluation of these patients, physiologic age, and not chronologic age, should be carefully considered in the decision-making process prior to both cancer screening and cancer treatment in an effort to avoid ageism. Many tools exist to help(More)
Pancreatic cysts are challenging lesions to diagnose and to treat. Determining which of the five most common diagnoses-pancreatic pseudocyst, serous cystic neoplasm (SCN), solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), and intraductal mucinous papillary neoplasm (IPMN)-is likely the correct one requires the careful integration of many(More)
Hereditary etiologies of pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers are increasingly recognized. An estimated >10% of pancreatic and increasing number of hepatobiliary cancers are hereditary. The cumulative risk of hereditary pancreatic cancer ranges from measurable but negligible in cystic fibrosis to a sobering 70% in cases of hereditary pancreatitis.(More)
BACKGROUND Mixed (composite) exocrine-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas are defined as an intimate admixture of neoplastic glandular exocrine and neuroendocrine cell types. Although gastric adenocarcinoma containing a small number of neuroendocrine cells is a relatively frequent occurrence, gastric neoplasms containing equal proportions of both cell types are(More)
A wide range of literature and experience has shown that teaching methods that promote active learning, such as inquiry-based approaches, are more effective than those that rely on passive learning. Gel electrophoresis, one of the most common laboratory techniques in molecular biology, has a wide range of applications in the life sciences. As such, we chose(More)
Minimally invasive techniques used in the evaluation and treatment of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) include ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, percutaneous and operative ablation therapy, standard laparoscopic techniques, robotic techniques, and experimental techniques of natural orifice endoscopic surgery.(More)
MKK4 gene is selected against by inactivating mutations in a large number of different tumor types, eg, tumors of the pancreas, bile ducts, breast, colon, lungs, testes [1-3] at a remarkably consistent rate of approximately 5-10% of tumors, identifying and defining it, therefore, as a tumor-suppressor (or genome-maintenance) gene [4]. Yet, experimental(More)
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