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Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a peptide hormone produced by activated macrophages, possesses the ability to modulate the proliferation, maturation and functional activation of a broad spectrum of cell types and may play a major role in the initiation and amplification of immune and inflammatory responses through its action on these diverse cell populations. IL-1(More)
During the acute phase response to tissue injury or inflammation, the concentration of several plasma proteins change. Previous work (29-34) suggested a role for interleukin 1 (IL-1) in the acute phase response. The availability of recombinant-generated mouse IL-1 prompted a study designed to directly test the function of IL-1 and its mechanism of action on(More)
Cyclosporin A blocked production of the lymphokine interleukin 2 by activated T lymphocytes. In a human and a murine cell line this inhibition reflected an absence of interleukin 2 messenger RNA. Under conditions in which these cells are normally stimulated to secrete high levels of interleukin 2, they failed to do so in the presence of cyclosporin A. In(More)
In this report we describe conditions for polyclonal activation of small numbers of highly purified mouse B lymphocytes. Three signals are required for induction of DNA synthesis by the particular subset of small B lymphocytes investigated: a signal delivered by antibodies specific for the IgM receptor expressed on the B cell membrane; a signal delivered by(More)
We evaluated the ability of flagellin, a highly effective mucosal adjuvant in mice and non-human primates, to promote mucosal innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice. We found that intratracheal instillation of flagellin induced a stronger respiratory innate response in aged mice than in young mice, and that intranasal instillation of flagellin was(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a product of mononuclear phagocytes that mediates changes characteristic of the response to inflammation or tissue injury (the acute-phase response). One of two structurally and functionally homologous major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genes encodes a positive acute-phase protein, complement factor B. The closely(More)