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The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) has been implicated in embryonic development, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, and inflammation, but its receptors remain unidentified. We report that PGRN bound directly to tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and disturbed the TNFα-TNFR interaction. PGRN-deficient mice were susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis,(More)
Cyclooxygenase (COX), the key enzyme required for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins was first identified over 20 years ago. Drugs, like aspirin, that inhibit cyclooxygenase activity have been available to the public for about 100 years. In the past decade, however, more progress has been made in understanding the role of cyclooxygenase(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prevalent systemic autoimmune disease, caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Animal models suggest a role for intestinal bacteria in supporting the systemic immune response required for joint inflammation. Here we performed 16S sequencing on 114 stool samples from rheumatoid arthritis patients and(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) dependent regulatory T cell (Treg) activity controls effector T cell (Teff) function and is inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) recruitment to the immunological synapse is required for full Teff activation. In contrast, PKC-θ was sequestered away from the Treg immunological(More)
NF-kappaB transcription factors regulate inflammatory responses to cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. We tested whether PGE2 regulated nuclear localization of individual NF-kappaB subunits, p65 and p50, in synovial fibroblasts harvested from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1beta/TNF-alpha stimulated the translocation of p65 and p50 from(More)
In these studies we provide conclusive evidence that (beta/gamma) actin present in human neutrophils is a substrate for nitric oxide (NO)-dependent ADP ribosylation and that this modification is associated with the inhibition of actin polymerization. A 43-kDa substrate for NO-dependent ADP ribosylation was identified as actin by four methods: (1)(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease involving chondrocytes, cartilage and other joint tissues, and has a number of underlying causes, including both biochemical and mechanical factors. Although proinflammatory factors including nitric oxide (NO) are associated with OA, there is recent evidence suggesting that NO and its redox derivatives may also(More)
Osteoarthritis is often a progressive and disabling disease, which occurs in the setting of a variety of risk factors--such as advancing age, obesity, and trauma--that conspire to incite a cascade of pathophysiologic events within joint tissues. An important emerging theme in osteoarthritis is a broadening of focus from a disease of cartilage to one of the(More)
T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent regulatory T cell (Treg) activity controls effector T cell (Teff) function and is inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Protein kinase C-theta (PKC-theta) recruitment to the immunological synapse is required for full Teff activation. In contrast, PKC-theta was sequestered away from(More)