Steven A. Wrighton

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Variation in the CYP3A enzymes, which act in drug metabolism, influences circulating steroid levels and responses to half of all oxidatively metabolized drugs. CYP3A activity is the sum activity of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5, which is polymorphically expressed at high levels in a minority of Americans of European descent and Europeans(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches, to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a superfamily of membrane-bound enzymes whose active site is localized inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Glucuronidation using human liver microsomes has traditionally involved disruption of the membrane barrier, usually by detergent treatment, to attain maximal enzyme activity. The goals of the current work were(More)
CYP2B6 metabolizes many drugs, and its expression varies greatly. CYP2B6 genotype-phenotype associations were determined using human livers that were biochemically phenotyped for CYP2B6 (mRNA, protein, and CYP2B6 activity), and genotyped for CYP2B6 coding and 5'-flanking regions. CYP2B6 expression differed significantly between sexes. Females had higher(More)
The human P450III family has been shown to be composed of at least four members, P450IIIA3 (HLp), P450IIIA4 (P450NF), P450IIIA5 (HLp3), and P450IIIA6 (HLp2). Due to the lack of probes that specifically recognize the individual members of this family, little is known about their relative expression. We prepared a form-specific antibody to P450IIIA5 by(More)
The capabilities of cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), CYP3A5, and fetal hepatic microsomes containing CYP3A7 to metabolize midazolam were investigated using human hepatic microsomes and purified CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Under initial rate conditions and high substrate concentration (400 microM midazolam), variability among eighteen human liver microsomal samples was(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR)/steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcriptionally activates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) when ligand activated by endobiotics and xenobiotics. We cloned the human PXR gene and analysed the sequence in DNAs of individuals whose CYP3A phenotype was known. The PXR gene spans 35 kb, contains nine exons, and mapped to(More)
In an effort to identify and characterize minor forms of human liver cytochrome P450, immunoblot analyses of microsome samples were developed with antibodies to various P450s that recognized multiple human P450s. Four P450s were recognized in immunoblot analyses of human liver microsome samples developed with an antibody previously demonstrated to(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
The human cytochromes P450 (P450) CYP3A contribute to the biotransformation of 50% of oxidatively metabolized drugs. The predominant hepatic form is CYP3A4, but recent evidence indicates that CYP3A5 contributes more significantly to the total liver CYP3A than was originally thought. CYP3A7 is the major fetal form and is rarely expressed in adults. To(More)