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Catecholamines such as noradrenaline and adrenaline have been implicated in numerous physiological processes but, although catecholamine synthesis begins at mid-gestation, previous studies have provided little evidence for any role in early development. Furthermore, there are several case reports of humans with noradrenaline deficiency. To investigate this,(More)
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), attracted by the chemokine CXCL12, reside in specific niches in the bone marrow (BM). HSPC migration out of the BM is a critical process that underlies modern clinical stem cell transplantation. Here we demonstrate that enforced HSPC egress from BM niches depends critically on the nervous system. UDP-galactose(More)
The murine Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (type I) (EC, which is expressed predominantly in brain, was inactivated by targeted mutagenesis. Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was reduced 40-60% in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from mutants was perturbed relative(More)
Theory suggests evolutionary change can significantly influence and act in tandem with ecological forces via ecological-evolutionary feedbacks. This theory assumes that significant evolutionary change occurs over ecologically relevant timescales and that phenotypes have differential effects on the environment. Here we test the hypothesis that local(More)
A role for norepinephrine in learning and memory has been elusive and controversial. A longstanding hypothesis states that the adrenergic nervous system mediates enhanced memory consolidation of emotional events. We tested this hypothesis in several learning tasks using mutant mice conditionally lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine, as well as control(More)
Mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene are unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine. These mice have elevated levels of dopamine in most tissues, although the levels are only a fraction of those normally found for NE. It is noteworthy that NE can be restored to normal levels in many tissues after a single(More)
The roles of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine in behavior were investigated by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, thereby eliminating these compounds in vivo. Most heterozygous pups born to Dbh-/- females died within several days of birth and were often found scattered within the bedding. Potential causes including deficits(More)
Light, nutrient availability, and flow are strong factors controlling the elemental composition and biomass of epilithon in temperate stream ecosystems. However, comparatively little is known about these relationships in tropical streams. We investigated how gradients of light and nutrient availability, seasonality, and habitat influenced epilithon biomass,(More)
Exogenous leptin enhances energy utilization in ob/ob mice by binding its hypothalamic receptor and selectively increasing peripheral fat oxidation. Leptin also increases uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the neurotransmitter that mediates this effect has not been established. The present experiments sought to(More)
Aberrant aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) to form fibrils and insoluble aggregates has been implicated in the pathogenic processes of many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the dramatic effects of dopamine in inhibiting the formation of alpha-syn fibrils by stabilization of oligomeric intermediates in cell-free systems, no studies have examined(More)