Steven A. Thomas

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Catecholamines such as noradrenaline and adrenaline have been implicated in numerous physiological processes but, although catecholamine synthesis begins at mid-gestation, previous studies have provided little evidence for any role in early development. Furthermore, there are several case reports of humans with noradrenaline deficiency. To investigate this,(More)
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), attracted by the chemokine CXCL12, reside in specific niches in the bone marrow (BM). HSPC migration out of the BM is a critical process that underlies modern clinical stem cell transplantation. Here we demonstrate that enforced HSPC egress from BM niches depends critically on the nervous system. UDP-galactose(More)
Mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene are unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine. These mice have elevated levels of dopamine in most tissues, although the levels are only a fraction of those normally found for NE. It is noteworthy that NE can be restored to normal levels in many tissues after a single(More)
Theory suggests evolutionary change can significantly influence and act in tandem with ecological forces via ecological-evolutionary feedbacks. This theory assumes that significant evolutionary change occurs over ecologically relevant timescales and that phenotypes have differential effects on the environment. Here we test the hypothesis that local(More)
A role for norepinephrine in learning and memory has been elusive and controversial. A longstanding hypothesis states that the adrenergic nervous system mediates enhanced memory consolidation of emotional events. We tested this hypothesis in several learning tasks using mutant mice conditionally lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine, as well as control(More)
The murine Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (type I) (EC, which is expressed predominantly in brain, was inactivated by targeted mutagenesis. Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was reduced 40-60% in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from mutants was perturbed relative(More)
We measured denitrification and total nitrate uptake rates in a small stream (East Fork of Walker Branch in eastern Tennessee) using a new field 15N tracer addition and modeling approach that quantifies these rates for entire stream reaches. The field experiment consisted of an 8-h addition of 99 atom% KNO3 and a conservative solute tracer. Two 15N tracer(More)
Rates of biogeochemical processes often vary widely in space and time, and characterizing this variation is critical for understanding ecosystem functioning. In streams, spatial hotspots of nutrient transformations are generally attributed to physical and microbial processes. Here we examine the potential for heterogeneous distributions of fish to generate(More)
The brain and CSF distribution of the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), was investigated by the in situ brain perfusion and isolated incubated choroid plexus methods in the guinea pig. Multiple-time brain perfusions indicated that the distribution of [3H]ddC to the brain and CSF was low and the unidirectional rate constant(More)
The roles of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine in behavior were investigated by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, thereby eliminating these compounds in vivo. Most heterozygous pups born to Dbh-/- females died within several days of birth and were often found scattered within the bedding. Potential causes including deficits(More)