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The Xist gene has been proposed as a candidate for the X inactivation centre, the master regulatory switch locus that controls X chromosome inactivation. So far this hypothesis has been supported solely by indirect evidence. Here we describe gene targeting of Xist, and provide evidence for its absolute requirement in the process of X chromosome inactivation.
The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1) is a ligand-gated, non-selective cation channel expressed predominantly by sensory neurons. VR1 responds to noxious stimuli including capsaicin, the pungent component of chilli peppers, heat and extracellular acidification, and it is able to integrate simultaneous exposure to these stimuli. These findings and research linking(More)
The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) member of the TRP superfamily has recently been implicated in numerous physiological processes. In this study, we describe a small molecule TRPV4 channel activator,(More)
The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may control the initiation of X inactivation. We show that in somatic tissues the 5' end of the silent Xist allele on the active X chromosome is fully methylated, while the expressed allele on the inactive X is completely unmethylated. In tissues that undergo imprinted paternal(More)
Metformin is among the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) plays a role in the hepatic uptake of metformin, but its role in the therapeutic effects of the drug, which involve activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Recent studies have shown that human OCT1 is highly(More)
The onset of X inactivation is preceded by a marked increase in the level of Xist RNA. Here we demonstrate that increased stability of Xist RNA is the primary determinant of developmental up-regulation. Unstable transcript is produced by both alleles in XX ES cells and in XX embryos prior to the onset of random X inactivation. Following differentiation,(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels are cation channels found preferentially on nociceptive sensory neurones, including capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-expressing vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres, and are activated by electrophilic compounds such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde. Oxidative stress, a pathological feature of many respiratory diseases,(More)
The Xist gene plays a central role in regulating X chromosome inactivation and Xist transcription has recently been shown to be necessary for X inactivation in mouse. We are currently analysing regulation of the Xist gene in order to determine the mechanisms underlying initiation of Xist expression and X inactivation. Sequence comparisons indicate that a(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the effects of genetic variation in the organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, on the pharmacokinetics of the antidiabetic drug, metformin. Twenty healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotype agreed to participate in the study. Each subject received two oral doses of metformin followed by collection of blood and urine(More)
The Grb10 adapter protein is capable of interacting with a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, including, notably, the insulin receptor. Biochemical and cell culture experiments have indicated that Grb10 might act as an inhibitor of insulin signaling. We have used mice with a disruption of the Grb10 gene (Grb10Delta2-4 mice) to assess whether Grb10 might(More)