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The Xist gene has been proposed as a candidate for the X inactivation centre, the master regulatory switch locus that controls X chromosome inactivation. So far this hypothesis has been supported solely by indirect evidence. Here we describe gene targeting of Xist, and provide evidence for its absolute requirement in the process of X chromosome inactivation.
The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1) is a ligand-gated, non-selective cation channel expressed predominantly by sensory neurons. VR1 responds to noxious stimuli including capsaicin, the pungent component of chilli peppers, heat and extracellular acidification, and it is able to integrate simultaneous exposure to these stimuli. These findings and research linking(More)
The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may control the initiation of X inactivation. We show that in somatic tissues the 5' end of the silent Xist allele on the active X chromosome is fully methylated, while the expressed allele on the inactive X is completely unmethylated. In tissues that undergo imprinted paternal(More)
The onset of X inactivation is preceded by a marked increase in the level of Xist RNA. Here we demonstrate that increased stability of Xist RNA is the primary determinant of developmental up-regulation. Unstable transcript is produced by both alleles in XX ES cells and in XX embryos prior to the onset of random X inactivation. Following differentiation,(More)
The Grb10 adapter protein is capable of interacting with a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, including, notably, the insulin receptor. Biochemical and cell culture experiments have indicated that Grb10 might act as an inhibitor of insulin signaling. We have used mice with a disruption of the Grb10 gene (Grb10Delta2-4 mice) to assess whether Grb10 might(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels are cation channels found preferentially on nociceptive sensory neurones, including capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-expressing vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres, and are activated by electrophilic compounds such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde. Oxidative stress, a pathological feature of many respiratory diseases,(More)
Developmental regulation of the mouse Xist gene at the onset of X chromosome inactivation is mediated by RNA stabilization. Here, we show that alternate promoter usage gives rise to distinct stable and unstable RNA isoforms. Unstable Xist transcript initiates at a novel upstream promoter, whereas stable Xist RNA is transcribed from the previously identified(More)
Studies in heterologous systems have demonstrated that heterodimerisation of the two GABA(B) receptor subunits appears to be crucial for the trafficking and signalling of the receptor. Gene targeting of the GABA(B1) gene has demonstrated that the expression of GABA(B1) is essential for GABA(B) receptor function in the central nervous system (CNS). However,(More)
BACKGROUND Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)/platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. A therapeutic targeting of this enzyme was challenged by the concern that increased circulating platelet activating factor (PAF) may predispose to or increase the severity of the(More)
Dysbindin-1, a protein that regulates aspects of early and late brain development, has been implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. As the functional roles of the three major isoforms of dysbindin-1, (A, B, and C) remain unknown, we generated a novel mutant mouse, dys-1A-/-, with selective loss of dysbindin-1A and investigated schizophrenia-related(More)
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