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DNA sequences for the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I in a group of rodents (pocket gophers) and their ectoparasites (chewing lice) provide evidence for cospeciation and reveal different rates of molecular evolution in the hosts and their parasites. The overall rate of nucleotide substitution (both silent and replacement changes) is(More)
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are each believed to host distinct hookworm species (Uncinaria spp.). However, a recent morphometric analysis suggested that a single species parasitizes multiple pinniped hosts, and that the observed differences are host-induced. To explore the systematics of these(More)
Rotifers are free-living animals usually smaller than 1 mm that possess a characteristic wheel organ. Acanthocephalans (thorny-headed worms) are larger endoparasitic animals that use vertebrates and arthropods to complete their life cycle. The taxa Acanthocephala and Rotifera are considered separate phyla, often within the taxon Aschelminthes. We have(More)
Ascaridoid nematodes parasitize the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrate definitive hosts and are represented by more than 50 described genera. We used 582 nucleotides (83% of the coding sequence) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 2, in combination with published small- and large-subunit nuclear rDNA sequences (2,557 characters) and(More)
Individual specimens of Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, and Contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern Pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 Anisakis taxa, 8 Pseudoterranova taxa, 4 Contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. Partial(More)
Entomopathogenic nematodes in Steinernema, together with their symbiont bacteria Xenorhabdus, are obligate and lethal parasites of insects that can provide effective biological control of some important lepidopteran, dipteran, and coleopteran pests of commercial crops. Phylogenetic relationships among 21 Steinernema species were estimated using 28S(More)
The close correspondence often observed between the taxonomy of parasites and their hosts has led to Fahrenholz's rule, which postulates that parasites and their hosts speciate in synchrony. This leads to the prediction that phylogenetic trees of parasites and their hosts should be topologically identical. We report here a test of this prediction which(More)
BACKGROUND The orders Ascaridida, Oxyurida, and Spirurida represent major components of zooparasitic nematode diversity, including many species of veterinary and medical importance. Phylum-wide nematode phylogenetic hypotheses have mainly been based on nuclear rDNA sequences, but more recently complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene sequences have provided(More)
The Palaeacanthocephala is traditionally represented by 2 orders, Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida, with 10 and 3 families, respectively. To test the monophyly of the class, these 2 orders, and certain families, phylogenies were inferred using nuclear small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences obtained for 29 species representing 10(More)