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Evidence suggests that the nervous system controls motor tasks using a low-dimensional modular organization of muscle activation. However, it is not clear if such an organization applies to coordination of human walking, nor how nervous system injury may alter the organization of motor modules and their biomechanical outputs. We first tested the hypothesis(More)
Walking is a motor task requiring coordination of many muscles. Previous biomechanical studies, based primarily on analyses of the net ankle moment during stance, have concluded different functional roles for the plantar flexors. We hypothesize that some of the disparities in interpretation arise because of the effects of the uniarticular and biarticular(More)
The ankle plantar flexors were previously shown to support the body in single-leg stance to ensure its forward progression [J. Biomech. 34 (2001) 1387]. The uni- (SOL) and biarticular (GAS) plantar flexors accelerated the trunk and leg forward, respectively, with each opposing the effect of the other. Around mid-stance their net effect on the trunk and the(More)
Recent evidence suggests that performance of complex locomotor tasks such as walking may be accomplished using a simple underlying organization of co-active muscles, or "modules", which have been assumed to be structured to perform task-specific biomechanical functions. However, no study has explicitly tested whether the modules would actually produce the(More)
Current understanding of how muscles coordinate walking in humans is derived from analyses of body motion, ground reaction force and EMG measurements. This is Part I of a two-part review that emphasizes how muscle-driven dynamics-based simulations assist in the understanding of individual muscle function in walking, especially the causal relationships(More)
In this study we evaluated the physiological and biomechanical responses of "elite-national class" (i.e., group 1; N = 9) and "good-state class" (i.e., group 2; N = 6) cyclists while they simulated a 40 km time-trial in the laboratory by cycling on an ergometer for 1 h at their highest power output. Actual road racing 40 km time-trial performance was highly(More)
Modulating speed over a large range is important in walking, yet understanding how the neuromotor patterns adapt to the changing energetic demands of different speeds is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify functional and energetic adaptations in individual muscles in response to walking at faster steady-state speeds using(More)
BACKGROUND Persons with post-stroke hemiparesis usually walk slowly and asymmetrically. Stroke severity and functional walking status are commonly predicted by post-stroke walking speed. The mechanisms that limit walking speed, and by extension functional walking status, need to be understood to improve post-stroke rehabilitation methods. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of poststroke motor impairment has historically focused on the ability to move within and outside of abnormal synergistic motor patterns and is typically quantified by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). However, it is unclear if the voluntary, isolated movement tasks of the FMA are appropriate for evaluating walking task-specific motor(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence supports peroneal nerve functional electrical stimulation (FES) as an effective alternative to ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) for treatment of foot drop poststroke, but few randomized controlled comparisons exist. OBJECTIVE To compare changes in gait and quality of life (QoL) between FES and an AFO in individuals with foot drop poststroke.(More)