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Evolutionary theory has not explained how competition among lower level units is suppressed in the formation of higher-level evolutionary units. For example, the key problem of early evolution is small, individual replicators formed cooperative groups of sufficient complexity to allow accurate copying of the genetic material. The puzzle is why parasites did(More)
A general framework is presented to unify diverse models of natural selection. This framework is based on the Price Equation, with two additional steps. First, characters are described by their multiple regression on a set of predictor variables. The most common predictors in genetics are alleles and their interactions, but any predictor may be used. The(More)
George Price studied evolutionary genetics for approximately seven years between 1967 and 1974. During that brief period Price made three lasting contributions to evolutionary theory; these were: (i) the Price Equation, a profound insight into the nature of selection and the basis for the modern theories of kin and group selection; (ii) the theory of games(More)
Models of sex-ratio evolution in structured populations are derived with G.R. Price's covariance form for the hierarchical analysis of natural selection (1970, Nature 227, 520-521). Previous work on competition among related males for mates (local mate competition), competition among related females for a limiting resource (local resource competition),(More)
The transition from competing individuals to cooperative groups has occurred several times in evolutionary history. The puzzle is why selfish individuals did not subvert cohesive group behaviour by taking resources without contributing to the group's overall success. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are the two standard explanations for group cohesion.(More)
Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of natural selection is one of the most widely cited theories in evolutionary biology. Yet it has been argued that the standard interpretation of the theorem is very different from what Fisher meant to say. What Fisher really meant can be illustrated by looking in a new way at a recent model for the evolution of clutch size. Why(More)
Kin selection coefficients are used in two distinct ways. First, these coefficients measure phenotypic correlations that affect the marginal costs and benefits of behaviors. For example, the phenotypic correlation in sex ratio produced by two females in an isolated patch influences the favoured sex ratio. Second, kin selection coefficients describe(More)
Conditions are analyzed under which natural selection favors an individual to help another species at a cost to its own reproduction. Traditional models for the evolution of altruism between species focus on the genetic relatedness between the original donor and the recipients of return benefits from the mutualistic partner species. A more general model is(More)