Learn More
On 4 July 2005, many observatories around the world and in space observed the collision of Deep Impact with comet 9P/Tempel 1 or its aftermath. This was an unprecedented coordinated observational campaign. These data show that (i) there was new material after impact that was compositionally different from that seen before impact; (ii) the ratio of dust mass(More)
Recent physiological experiments have shown that the responses of many neurons in V1 and V3a are modulated by the direction of gaze. We have developed a neural network model of the hierarchy of maps in visual cortex to explore the hypothesis that visual features are encoded in egocentric (spatio-topic) coordinates at early stages of visual processing. Most(More)
Myosin phosphatase is a target for signaling pathways that modulate calcium sensitivity of force production in smooth muscle. Myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) isoforms are generated by cassette-type alternative splicing of exons in the central and 3' portion of the transcript. Exclusion of the 3' alternative exon, coding for the leucine zipper(More)
BACKGROUND The heart develops under reduced and varying oxygen concentrations, yet there is little understanding of oxygen metabolism in the normal and mal-development of the heart. Here we used a novel reagent, the ODD-Luc hypoxia reporter mouse (oxygen degradation domain, ODD) of Hif-1α fused to Luciferase (Luc), to assay the activity of the oxygen(More)
Myosin phosphatase is the primary effector of smooth muscle relaxation and a target of signaling pathways that regulate vascular tone. The mesenteric small resistance artery and large vessel smooth muscle express distinct isoforms of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1), and the isoforms in the small resistance artery switch in a disease model(More)
How multicellular organisms obtain and use oxygen and other substrates has evolved over hundreds of millions of years in parallel with the evolution of oxygen-delivery systems. A steady supply of oxygen is critical to the existence of organisms that depend on oxygen as a primary source of fuel (i.e., those that live by aerobic metabolism). Not surprisingly,(More)
The development of the tubular heart into a complex four-chambered organ requires precise temporal and region-specific regulation of cell proliferation, migration, death and differentiation. While the regulatory mechanisms in heart morphogenesis are not well understood, increasing attention has focused on the homeodomain proteins, which are generally linked(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Determining the role of vascular receptors in vivo is difficult and not readily accomplished by systemic application of antagonists or genetic manipulations. Here we used intravital microscopy to measure the contributions of sympathetic receptors, particularly α1-adrenoceptor subtypes, to contractile activation of femoral artery in(More)
The cardiac outflow tract (OFT) of birds and mammals undergoes complex remodeling in the transition to a dual circulation. We have previously suggested a role of myocardial hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 in the apoptosis-dependent remodeling of the OFT. In the present study, we transduced recombinant adenovirus-mediated HIF-1alpha in embryonic(More)
Diversity of smooth muscle within the vascular system is generated by alternative splicing of exons, yet there is limited understanding of its timing or control mechanisms. We examined splicing of myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit (Mypt1) exon 24 (E24) in relation to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc) and smoothelin (Smtn) alternative exons (Smmhc(More)