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This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that(More)
Non-digestible oligosaccharides such as inulin and oligofructose have been shown to consistently increase calcium absorption in experimental animals, but data in humans are less clear-cut. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of 8 g/d of oligofructose or a mixture of inulin and oligofructose on calcium absorption in girls at or near(More)
BACKGROUND Analytical methods for measuring the calcium isotope distribution in enriched human serum samples that use low blood volumes, simple preparation methods, and rapid analysis are important in clinical studies of calcium kinetics. Previously, sample preparation by oxalate precipitation typically required 500 micro L of serum. This method was(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of maternal iron status on fetal iron deposition is uncertain. OBJECTIVE We used a unique stable-isotope technique to assess iron transfer to the fetus in relation to maternal iron status. DESIGN The study group comprised 41 Peruvian women. Of these women, 26 received daily prenatal supplements containing iron and folate (n = 11;(More)
Iron supplementation strategies in the developing world remain controversial because of fears of exacerbating prevalent infectious diseases. Understanding the conditions in which iron will be absorbed and incorporated into erythrocytes is therefore important. We studied Gambian children with either postmalarial or nonmalarial anemia, who were given oral(More)
BACKGROUND Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the magnitude and duration of these effects are(More)
Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium(More)
BACKGROUND Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) despite current practices of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Few data are available evaluating the usual course of markers of mineral status in this population. Our objectives in this study were to determine the relationship between birth(More)