Steve W. J. Kozlowski

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Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups to explore, achieve, and conquer. Yet, the modern concept of work(More)
Organizations are multilevel systems. This axiom-the foundation of organizational systems theory-is reflected in the earliest examples of organizational theory, including the Hawthorne Studies (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939), Homans's theory of groups (1950), Lewin's field theory (1951), sociotechnical systems theory (Emery & Trist, 1960), Likert's theory(More)
When working as a member of a team, individuals must make decisions concerning the allocation of resources (e.g., effort) toward individual goals and team goals. As a result, individual and team goals, and feedback related to progress toward these goals, should be potent levers for affecting resource allocation decisions. This research develops a(More)
This study examined the direct relationship of goal orientation--and the interaction of goal orientation and cognitive ability--with self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge in a learning context. The authors argue that whether a particular type of goal orientation is adaptive or not adaptive depends on individuals' cognitive ability. Consistent with(More)
This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety)(More)
As the nature of work in today's organizations becomes more complex, dynamic, and global, there has been an increasing emphasis on far-flung, distributed, virtual teams as organizing units of work. Despite their growing prevalence, relatively little is known about this new form of work unit. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework to(More)
Multilevel theory and research have advanced organizational science but are limited because the research focus is incomplete. Most quantitative research examines top-down, contextual, cross-level relationships. Emergent phenomena that manifest from the bottom up from the psychological characteristics, processes, and interactions among individuals—although(More)
The study examined task interdependence as a structural factor, which influences the emergence of collective-efficacy versus self-efficacy as a team-level construct. It tested for the differential effects of self-and collective-efficacy on team performance and the effects of initial perceptions of self-and collective-efficacy and record of past performance(More)