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Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived(More)
ChEBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi) is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. Over the past few years, ChEBI has continued to grow steadily in content, and has added several new features. In addition to incorporating all user-requested compounds, our annotation efforts have emphasized immunology, natural products and metabolites(More)
ChEBI is a database and ontology containing information about chemical entities of biological interest. It currently includes over 46,000 entries, each of which is classified within the ontology and assigned multiple annotations including (where relevant) a chemical structure, database cross-references, synonyms and literature citations. All content is(More)
Telomeres are repeated sequences that protect the ends of chromosomes and harbour DNA repair proteins. Telomeres shorten during each cell division in the absence of telomerase. When telomere length becomes critically short, cell senescence occurs. Telomere length therefore reflects both cellular ageing and capacity for division. We have measured telomere(More)
Rhea (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/rhea) is a comprehensive resource of expert-curated biochemical reactions. Rhea provides a non-redundant set of chemical transformations for use in a broad spectrum of applications, including metabolic network reconstruction and pathway inference. Rhea includes enzyme-catalyzed reactions (covering the IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature(More)
Memory latency has always been a major issue in shared-memory multiprocessors and high-speed systems. This is even more true as the gap between processor and memory speeds continues to grow. Data prefetching has been proposed as a means of addressing the data access penalty problem. Data prefetching can be controlled by hardware, software or a combination(More)
The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view(More)
Despite rapid increases in CPU performance, the primary obstacles to achieving higher performance in contemporary processor organizations remain control and data hazards. Primary data cache misses are responsible for the majority of the data hazards. With CPU primary cache sizes limited by clock cycle time constraints, the performance of future CPUs is(More)
OBJECTIVE To complete a systematic review of the literature describing associations between all environmental exposures and asthma symptoms and exacerbations in children up to mean age of 9 years. DESIGN Systematic review. SETTING Reference lists of identified studies and reviews were searched for all articles published until November 2013 in electronic(More)
This study used multiple theoretical approaches simultaneously to predict an objectively measured clinical behaviour. The six theoretical approaches were: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Action Planning (AP) and the Precaution Adoption Process(More)