Steve Smallwood

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Women, on average, live longer than men, though sex differences in mortality vary from country to country and over time. This study includes a description of recent changes in life expectancies at different ages, followed by a more detailed analysis of death rates by age in selected countries. Additionally it provides a historical perspective on the sex(More)
This article presents and analyses women's childbearing intentions collected in the General Household Survey (GHS). Data from the 21 surveys from 1979 to 2001 show that over that period there has been a fall in women's intended numbers of births. However the latest data (from the 1998, 2000 and 2001 surveys) show that the average number of children intended(More)
A greater understanding of past, present and future trends in fertility can be gained from analysing trends in birth order; that is whether a birth is a first, second, third or higher order birth. However, under current legislation, birth order information is not collected at registration for births outside marriage and birth order recorded within marriage(More)
Progressively later starting of childbearing has been a feature of cohort change in fertility across Europe and elsewhere over recent decades. Growing differences in the age patterns of childbearing between the Anglo-American and continental European countries, however, have also been found. The present study uses large linked-record databases in Britain,(More)
According to the 'reproductive polarization' hypothesis, family-policy regimes unfavourable to the combination of employment with motherhood generate greater socio-economic differentials in fertility than other regimes. This hypothesis has been tested mainly for 'liberal' Anglo-American regimes. To investigate the effects elsewhere, we compared education(More)
Changes in the ages at which women give birth to their children mean that fertility measured at a particular point in time (period) may not be a good representation of the ultimate fertility of those women. The common measure of period fertility is the total fertility rate, which in 2001 has fallen to the lowest level since records began in England and(More)
This article examines how strong the association is between the obtaining of higher educational qualifications and later entry to motherhood, and how these are associated with levels and pace of second and subsequent childbearing. Data from the ONS Longitudinal Study are used to estimate these associations for women born in England and Wales between 1954(More)
It is well documented that the generations born around 1930 are consistently exhibiting higher rates of mortality improvement than the generations either side of them. There is currently no evidence that these differentials are declining. In current ONS National Population Projections, it is assumed that these cohorts will continue to experience higher(More)
This article explores recent trends in marriage. Following consistent falls in marriage rates in the last quarter of the 20th century the early years of this century have seen some relatively large fluctuations in marriage numbers and rates. This article illustrates some of the recent trends in marriage. One innovation is that it presents marriage data by(More)
Replacement fertility is a term commonly used by demographers when referring to levels of childbearing and yet is rarely explained. It is normally presented as being around 2.1 children per woman. Continued below replacement fertility in developed countries and fertility falling in developing countries has given the concept of replacement fertility a higher(More)