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Evolving technology and increasing pin-bandwidth motivate the use of high-radix routers to reduce the diameter, latency, and cost of interconnection networks. High-radix networks, however, require longer cables than their low-radix counterparts. Because cables dominate network cost, the number of cables, and particularly the number of long, global cables(More)
The CRAY T3E is a scalable shared-memory multiprocessor based on the DEC Alpha 21164 microprocessor. The system includes a number of novel architectural features designed to tolerate latency, enhance scalability, and deliver high performance on scientific and engineering codes. Included among these are <b>stream buffers,</b> which detect and prefetch down(More)
This paper describes the radix-64 folded-Clos network of the Cray BlackWidow scalable vector multiprocessor. We describe the BlackWidow network which scales to 32K processors with a worstcase diameter of seven hops, and the underlying high-radix router microarchitecture and its implementation. By using a high-radix router with many narrow channels we are(More)
This paper describes the system architecture of the Cray BlackWidow scalable vector multiprocessor. The BlackWidow system is a distributed shared memory (DSM) architecture that is scalable to 32K processors, each with a 4-way dispatch scalar execution unit and an 8-pipe vector unit capable of 20.8 Gflops for 64-bit operations and 41.6 Gflops for 32-bit(More)
Feedback modulation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by ATP is a well documented phenomenon in bovine chromaffin cells. However, its influence in the control of hormone release is at present poorly understood. By using combined patch-clamp and fura-2 fluorescence measurements we provide evidence that the three Ca2+ channel types (L, N and P/Q) expressed(More)
This paper investigates a complexity-effective technique for verifying a highly distributed directory-based cache coherence protocol. We develop a novel approach called “witness strings” that combines both formal and informal verification methods to expose design errors within the cache coherence protocol and its Verilog implementation. In this approach a(More)
Evolving technology and increasing pin-bandwidth motivate the use of high-radix routers to reduce the diameter, latency, and cost of interconnection networks. This migration from low-radix to high-radix routers is demonstrated with the recent introduction of high-radix routers and they are expected to impact networks used in large-scale systems such as(More)
The ontogeny of the cerebral pyruvate recycling pathway and the cellular localization of associated enzymes, malic enzyme (ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), have been investigated using a combination of 13C NMR spectroscopy, enzymatic analysis, and molecular biology approaches. Activity of the pathway, using [1,2-(13)C2]acetate as a(More)
February 1996 27 More powerful processors and an increasing emphasis on networking have created the need for a new supercomputer interconnect. This interconnect must of course provide high bandwidth, but also high reliability, flexibility, and scalability of both cost and performance. Cray Research has developed the GigaRing channel to satisfy these(More)
This paper looks at work done on a case-based workforce scheduling application. Generalised patterns of workforce allocation are used to build up a schedule that is then adjusted to remove any problems. Because some constraint elements are incorporated in the case-base, the global problem search space is reduced. The case-base can be maintained either(More)