Steve S Shinmei

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The neuropeptide galanin exhibits anticonvulsant effects in experimental epilepsy. Two galanin receptor subtypes, GalR1 and GalR2, are present in the brain. We examined the role of GalR1 in seizures by studying the susceptibility of GalR1 knockout (KO) mice to status epilepticus (SE) and accompanying neuronal injury. SE was induced in GalR1 KO and wild type(More)
Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) induced by kainic acid activate programmed cell death mechanisms, and it is believed that kainic acid-induced status epilepticus induces neuronal apoptosis. In order to test this hypothesis, adult rats were subjected to 3-h kainic acid-induced seizures, with 24- or 72-h recovery periods. Neuronal death was assessed by(More)
PURPOSE To determine the regional distribution of neuronal damage caused strictly by status epilepticus (SE) without systemic complications, underlying brain pathology, or a history of preexisting epilepsy. METHODS The medical records and electroencephalograms (EEGs) of three deceased patients who developed SE in the hospital were reviewed. Their brains(More)
Galanin, acting at the GalR1-3 subtypes of galanin receptors, is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, feeding, seizure activity and pain. The understanding of galanin's effects in molecular and cellular terms has been hampered by the lack of receptor subtype selective ligands and antibodies. Previous in situ hybridization data showed that GalR1(More)
A caspase-3-activated DNase produces internucleosomal DNA cleavage (DNA laddering). We determined whether caspase-3 is activated by lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in six brain regions with necrosis-induced DNA laddering. The thymuses of adult rats given methamphetamine or normal saline were used as controls for apoptosis. Some 6-8 h after(More)
Activation of the caspase-dependent cell death pathways has been shown in focal seizures, but whether this occurs in prolonged generalized seizures is not known. We investigated whether the initiator caspase in the extrinsic pathway, caspase-8, or the intrinsic pathway, caspase-9, is activated during the first 24 h following lithium-pilocarpine-induced(More)
The neuropeptide galanin suppresses seizure activity in the hippocampus by inhibiting glutamatergic neurotransmission. Galanin may also modulate limbic seizures through interaction with other neurotransmitters in neuronal populations that project to the hippocampus. We examined the role of galanin receptors types 1 and 2 in the dorsal raphe (DR) in the(More)
Prolonged and continuous epileptic seizures [status epilepticus (SE)] produce a widespread pattern of neuronal death, primarily in limbic brain regions. Because it has been suggested that seizure-induced neuronal death may be apoptotic in nature, we tested the hypothesis that lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (LPCSE) produces apoptotic neurons.(More)
PURPOSE To determine definitively the morphology of neuronal death from lithium-pilocarpine (LPC)-and kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), and to correlate this with markers of DNA fragmentation that have been associated with cellular apoptosis. Endogenous glutamate release is probably responsible for neuronal death in both seizure models,(More)
We tested the hypothesis that mild insults produce apoptotic, and severe insults necrotic, cells by subjecting adult Wistar rats to 60-min instead of 3-h generalized seizures. Rats' brains were evaluated 6 and 24h later for evidence of neuronal necrosis by light and electron microscopy, the presence of TUNEL staining and active caspase-3 immunoreactivity,(More)
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