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Spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis are encased in a two-layered protein shell, which consists of an electron-translucent, lamellar inner coat, and an electron-dense outer coat. The coat protein CotE is both a structural component of the coat and a morphogenetic protein that is required for the assembly of the outer coat. We now show that CotE is(More)
Small (<200 nucleotide) RNA (sRNA) profiling of human cells using various technologies demonstrates unexpected complexity of sRNAs with hundreds of thousands of sRNA species present. Genetic and in vitro studies show that these RNAs are not merely degradation products of longer transcripts but could indeed have a function. Furthermore, profiling of RNAs,(More)
During the process of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis the appearance of the mother-cell transcription factor sigma K by conversion from its inactive precursor pro-sigma K is coupled to events under the control of the forespore transcription factor sigma G. This intercompartmental coupling is believed to be mediated by the products of a sporulation(More)
We describe the cloning, sequence and expression of gabA, encoding the gamma-amino-n-butyrate (GABA) permease of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Sequence changes were determined for three up-promoter (gabI ) and six gabA loss-of-function mutations. The predicted protein contains 517 residues and shows 30.3% overall identity with a putative GABA permease of(More)
We report the cloning and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation locus spoIVA, mutations at which cause an unusual defect in spore formation in which the coat misassembles as swirls within the mother cell. We show that spoIVA is a single gene of 492 codons that is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 55 kDa. Transcription of spoIVA is induced(More)
The mother-cell line of gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is a hierarchical cascade consisting of at least four temporally controlled gene sets, the first three of which each contain a regulatory gene for the next gene set in the pathway. gerE, a member of the penultimate gene set, is a regulatory gene whose products is required for(More)
Genetic analysis of eleven mutations affecting the IS10 promoters, pIN and pOUT, involved in anti-sense RNA control of transposase gene expression, and characterization of the transcripts, reveal that: (i) The transposase message (RNA-IN) and the anti-sense RNA (RNA-OUT) have been unambiguously identified in vivo. (ii) Five mutations affect pIN activity,(More)
IS10 transposition is regulated by an approximately 70 nt anti-sense RNA, RNA-OUT. RNA-OUT folds into a duplex 'stem-domain' topped by a loosely paired 'loop-domain'. The loop-domain is critical for RNA-RNA pairing per se; pairing initiates by interaction of the RNA-OUT loop with the 5' end of the target mRNA. We show here that RNA-OUT is unusually stable(More)
Bacillus subtilis gene ypfP, which is located at 196 degrees on the genetic map, shows similarity to both the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase gene of Cucumis sativus, which encodes a galactosyltransferase, and the murG genes of B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803, which encode(More)
The DNA-binding protein GerE is the latest-acting regulatory protein in the mother cell line of gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. GerE directs the transcription of several genes that encode structural components of the protein coat that encases the mature spore. We report on the identification and characterization of a cluster of(More)