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The identity and scope of chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in higher plants has only started to become apparent in recent years. Biochemical and molecular studies suggested the existence of Clp, FtsH, and DegP proteases in chloroplasts, and a Lon protease in mitochondria, although currently the full extent of their role in organellar biogenesis and(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant is variegated due to lack of a chloroplast FtsH-like metalloprotease (FtsH2/VAR2). We have generated suppressors of var2 variegation to gain insight into factors and pathways that interact with VAR2 during chloroplast biogenesis. Here, we describe two such suppressors. Suppression of variegation in(More)
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects over 250 million people worldwide and is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in developing countries, resulting in significant socio-economic losses. Provitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene, are derived from plant foods and are a major source of vitamin A for the majority of the world's population.(More)
Proteomics studies to explore global patterns of protein expression in plant and green algal systems have proliferated within the past few years. Although most of these studies have involved mapping of the proteomes of various organs, tissues, cells, or organelles, comparative proteomics experiments have also led to the identification of proteins that(More)
Plant growth and development are ensured through networks of complex regulatory schemes. Genetic approaches have been invaluable in dissecting these regulatory pathways. This study reports the isolation of a semi-dominant dwarf mutant designated abnormal shoot1-1 dominant (abs1-1D) through an Arabidopsis T-DNA activation tagging mutant screen. It was shown(More)
High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 μg/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability.(More)
BACKGROUND The Arabidopsis var2 mutant displays a unique green and white/yellow leaf variegation phenotype and lacks VAR2, a chloroplast FtsH metalloprotease. We are characterizing second-site var2 genetic suppressors as means to better understand VAR2 function and to study the regulation of chloroplast biogenesis. RESULTS In this report, we show that the(More)
Chloroplast biogenesis is an essential light-dependent process involving the differentiation of photosynthetically competent chloroplasts from precursors that include undifferentiated proplastids in leaf meristems, as well as etioplasts in dark-grown seedlings. The mechanisms that govern these developmental processes are poorly understood, but entail the(More)
The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis has green and white-sectored leaves due to the absence of fully functional plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), a plastoquinol oxidase in thylakoid membranes. PTOX appears to be at the nexus of a growing number of biochemical pathways in the plastid, including carotenoid biosynthesis, PSI cyclic electron flow,(More)