Steve R. Meshnick

Learn More
BACKGROUND To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Kinshasa, DRC. METHODS Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take(More)
Atovaquone is a substituted 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone that is used therapeutically to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and Toxoplasma gondii toxoplasmosis. It is thought to act on these organisms by inhibiting the cytochrome bc1 complex. We have examined the interaction of atovaquone with the bc1 complex isolated from(More)
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp. This was an in-vivo efficacy study to determine the parasitological treatment response and the(More)
The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria has been widely reported in scientific journals as well as the lay press. But how strong is the scientific evidence? It makes sense that artemisinin-resistant malaria would be emerging. Falciparum malaria has become resistant to every other drug. 1 Why should artemisinin be different? Furthermore , artemisinin(More)
It was postulated that the therapeutic index of very toxic, oxidative drugs could be improved by concurrent treatment with other agents, such as methylene-blue, which affect the concentration of intracellular reducing agents. In support of this hypothesis, methylene-blue was found to protect mice against the toxic effects of doxorubicin without reducing(More)
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) is a pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme which is usually directly linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Antimalarial naphthoquinones such as atovaquone (566c80) inhibit malarial DHOD by inhibiting electron transport. Since atovaquone also has therapeutic activity against Pneumocystis carinii, the P. carinii DHOD may(More)
Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for the establishment(More)
BACKGROUND In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of postnatal HIV transmission is associated with the magnitude of the milk virus load. While HIV-specific cellular immune responses control systemic virus load and are detectable in milk, the contribution of these responses to the control of virus load in milk is unknown. METHODS We assessed the magnitude of the immunodominant GagRY11(More)