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ATP-dependent proteases are vital to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we study the mechanisms of force generation and intersubunit coordination in the ClpXP protease from E. coli to understand how these machines couple ATP hydrolysis to mechanical protein unfolding. Single-molecule analyses reveal that phosphate release is the force-generating(More)
We develop a model for the distribution of scientific citations. The model involves a dual mechanism: in the direct mechanism, the author of a new paper finds an old paper A and cites it. In the indirect mechanism, the author of a new paper finds an old paper A only via the reference list of a newer intermediary paper B, which has previously cited A. By(More)
The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image(More)
We model the evolution of eukaryotic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. In our model, PPI networks evolve by two known biological mechanisms: (1) Gene duplication, which is followed by rapid diversification of duplicate interactions. (2) Neofunctionalization, in which a mutation leads to a new interaction with some other protein. Since many(More)
Superresolution imaging methods--now widely used to characterize biological structures below the diffraction limit--are poised to reveal in quantitative detail the stoichiometry of protein complexes in living cells. In practice, the photophysical properties of the fluorophores used as tags in superresolution methods have posed a severe theoretical challenge(More)
Single-molecule data often come in the form of stochastic time trajectories. A key question is how to extract an underlying kinetic model from the data. A traditional approach is to assume some discrete state model, that is, a model topology, and to assume that transitions between states are Markovian. The transition rates are then selected according to(More)
Different quantities that go by the name of entropy are used in variational principles to infer probability distributions from limited data. Shore and Johnson showed that maximizing the Boltzmann-Gibbs form of the entropy ensures that probability distributions inferred satisfy the multiplication rule of probability for independent events in the absence of(More)
Markov models are widely used to describe stochastic dynamics. Here, we show that Markov models follow directly from the dynamical principle of maximum caliber (Max Cal). Max Cal is a method of deriving dynamical models based on maximizing the path entropy subject to dynamical constraints. We give three different cases. First, we show that if constraints(More)
Experiments have shown that bacteria can be sensitive to small variations in chemoattractant (CA) concentrations. Motivated by these findings, our focus here is on a regime rarely studied in experiments: bacteria tracking point CA sources (such as food patches or even prey). In tracking point sources, the CA detected by bacteria may show very large(More)