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Ammonia-oxidizing organisms play an important role in wetland water purification and nitrogen cycling. We determined soil nitrification rates and investigated the seasonal and spatial distributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in three freshwater wetlands by using specific primers targeting the amoA genes of AOA(More)
It is standard in the literature on training to use wages as a sufficient statistic for productivity. This paper examines the effects of work-related training on direct measures of productivity. Using a new panel of British industries 1983–96 and a variety of estimation techniques we find that work-related training is associated with significantly higher(More)
The introduction of a statutory recognition procedure offers British unions the opportunity to reverse membership decline by organising non-union workers. The aim of this paper is to test theories of individual union joining in order to assess the likely impact of the new procedure on British union membership. Responses of a nationally representative sample(More)
Between 1996 and 2006, Nepal experienced violent civil conflict as a consequence of a Maoist insurgency, which many argue also brought about an increase in female empowerment. This paper exploits within and between-district variation in the intensity of violence to estimate the impact of conflict intensity on two key areas of the life of women in Nepal,(More)
We investigate occupational attainment as well as estimating earnings differentials for non-white migrants and non-white natives including occupational effects. We control for the occupational selection of immigrants and compare across native and immigrant groups. Relative to white natives, we find no evidence of an ethnic pay disadvantage for white and(More)
INTRODUCTION Immediate reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer has been shown to be oncologically safe and associated with improved psychosocial outcomes for patients. Bostwick described a technique for one-stage implant based reconstruction, combining skin-sparing mastectomy with concurrent reduction of the skin envelope. This report reviews(More)
The authors wish to thank those who attended a seminar 'Expanding Apprenticeship and the Work-based Route to Skills' held at the London School of Economics in April 1998 where the main themes of this report were discussed. 4 apprenticeship98.wpd In addition, the authors have benefited from discussion, help and comments from the following. However,(More)
Anecdotal evidence suggests that trade unions succeed in ameliorating workplace health and safety, but no attempt has been made to link specific workplace injury rates with a respective union presence. Relying on WERS98, this paper establishes a cross-sectional link between trade unions and occupational injury rates, revealing that unions gravitate to(More)
With the growing number of available Free and Open Source Software (F/OSS) applications, choosing between them becomes increasingly difficult. The concept of " trust " in social networking has been successfully applied to facilitate choice in similar situations. We propose a social network-based approach to quality assessment and evaluation of F/OSS(More)