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Gene duplication is widely regarded as a major mechanism modeling genome evolution and function. However, the mechanisms that drive the evolution of the two, initially redundant, gene copies are still ill defined. Many gene duplicates experience evolutionary rate acceleration, but the relative contribution of positive selection and random drift to the(More)
As whole genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, it will progressively substitute targeted next-generation sequencing as standard practice in research and diagnostics. However, computing cost-performance ratio is not advancing at an equivalent rate. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the robustness of the variant detection process taking into(More)
Complex formation between D-penicillamine (Pen) and copper(II) ions has been studied under simulated physiological conditions in both the presence and absence of the blood plasma constituents albumin, alanine, histidine, and zinc(II). Chromatographic and uv/vis and electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopic methods were used. The major species formed, at(More)
The molecular clock hypothesis states that protein-coding genes evolve at an approximately constant rate. However, this is only expected to be true as long as the function and the tertiary structure of the molecule remain unaltered. An important implication of this statement is that significant deviations in the rate of evolution of a gene with respect to(More)
Insertions and deletions (indels), together with nucleotide substitutions, are major drivers of sequence evolution. An excess of deletions over insertions in genomic sequences-the so-called deletional bias-has been reported in a wide range of species, including mammals. However, this bias has not been found in the coding sequences of some mammalian species,(More)
Large-scale evolutionary studies often require the automated construction of alignments of a large number of homologous gene families. The majority of eukaryotic genes can produce different transcripts due to alternative splicing or transcription initiation, and many such transcripts encode different protein isoforms. As analyses tend to be gene centered,(More)
The formation of thiomolybdates, MoOxS4--x2--(x = 0, 1, 2, or 3), from molybdate and sulphide salts in aqueous media has been studied under conditions which simulate the fluid phase in the rumen. The influences of the sulphide:molybdenum ratio, pH and phosphate levels on the nature of the species formed were investigated. The thiomolybdates, in particular(More)
The pH dependence of the uv/visible and CD spectra of the 1:1 Ni(BSA) complex in aqueous solutions is interpreted in terms of a major square-planar form and an octahedral form. At pH 7.4, the two forms, respectively, account for ca. 70% and 30% of the total Ni(II). The two forms are in rapid equilibrium with each other and so both probably involve Ni(II)(More)
A derivative of the native-sequence tripeptide of the specific Cu(II)-transport site of human serum albumin, L-aspartyl-L-alanyl-L-histidine N-methylamide, was synthesized, and its binding to Cu(II) was examined to determine the influence of the side-chain groups on the Cu(II) binding. The equilibria involved in the Cu(II)-L-aspartyl-L-alanyl-L-histidine(More)