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Classic research on conceptual hierarchies has shown that the interaction between the human perceiver and objects in the environment specifies one level of abstraction for categorizing objects, called the basic level, which plays a primary role in cognition. The question of whether the special psychological status of the basic level can be modified by(More)
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are generated in afferent pathways, subcortical structures and various regions of cerebellar and cerebral cortex by stimulation of somatic receptors or electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. This review summarizes current knowledge of SEPs generated in cerebral cortex by stimulation of the median nerve, the most(More)
Mature osteoclasts specifically express the purple, band 5 isozyme (Acp 5) of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, a binuclear metalloenzyme that can generate reactive oxygen species. The function of Acp 5 was investigated by targeted disruption of the gene in mice. Animals homozygous for the null Acp 5 allele had progressive foreshortening and deformity of(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be a likely cause of persistent disability after a multiple sclerosis relapse; therefore, noninvasive in vivo markers specific for axonal loss are needed. We used optic neuritis as a model of multiple sclerosis relapse to quantify axonal loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and secondary retinal ganglion cell loss in the(More)
Cilia and flagella play important roles in many physiological processes, including cell and fluid movement, sensory perception, and development. The biogenesis and maintenance of cilia depend on intraflagellar transport (IFT), a motility process that operates bidirectionally along the ciliary axoneme. Disruption in IFT and cilia function causes several(More)
The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the brain-stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was studied in 13 normally hearing adults by subtracting the response to binaural clicks from the algebraic sum of monaural responses. Eight or 16 electrodes on the head and neck were referred to a non-cephalic site, the binaural stimuli were delivered either(More)
Following an episode of optic neuritis, thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer, which indicates axonal loss, is observed using optical coherence tomography. The longitudinal course of the retinal changes has not been well characterized. We performed a serial optical coherence tomography study in patients presenting with optic neuritis in order to define(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides in vivo information about the pathology of multiple sclerosis lesions. Increases in mean diffusivity (MD) and reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) have been found and may represent axonal disruption. The optic nerve is an ideal structure for study by DT-MRI but previous clinical studies did(More)
This study assessed optic nerve mean area on serial MRI in a cohort of patients with a first episode of acute unilateral optic neuritis to assess the effects of a single acute inflammatory demyelinating lesion. Twenty-nine patients with a median delay from onset of visual symptoms of 13 days (range 7-24 days) were recruited. After a clinical examination and(More)