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Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented crowds of(More)
In this paper, we explore how the capacity limits of attention influence the effectiveness of information visualizations. We conducted a series of experiments to test how visual feature type (color vs. motion), layout, and variety of visual elements impacted user performance. The experiments tested users' abilities to (1) determine if a specified target is(More)
Although the infographic and design communities have used simple pictographic representations for decades, it is still unclear whether they can make visualizations more effective. Using simple charts, we tested how pictographic representations impact (1) memory for information just viewed, as well as under the load of additional information, (2) speed of(More)
Perceiving biological motion is important for understanding the intentions and future actions of others. Perceiving an approaching person's behavior may be particularly important, because such behavior often precedes social interaction. To this end, the visual system may devote extra resources for perceiving an oncoming person's heading. If this were true,(More)
The connected scatterplot visualizes two related time series in a scatterplot and connects the points with a line in temporal sequence. News media are increasingly using this technique to present data under the intuition that it is understandable and engaging. To explore these intuitions, we (1) describe how paired time series relationships appear in a(More)
Though the mediums for visualization are limited, the potential dimensions of a dataset are not. In many areas of scientific study, understanding the correlations between those dimensions and their uncertainties is pivotal to mining useful information from a dataset. Obtaining this insight can necessitate visualizing the many relationships among temporal,(More)
Ensemble coding supports rapid extraction of visual statistics about distributed visual information. Researchers typically study this ability with the goal of drawing conclusions about how such coding extracts information from natural scenes. Here we argue that a second domain can serve as another strong inspiration for understanding ensemble coding:(More)
Visualizing the time-variant results of a simulation can help scientists see patterns that would be difficult to find using only statistics. Furthermore, visualizing the differences between multiple simulations can let scientists directly analyze the simulations' consistency. In this article, we describe our interactive application for viewing the(More)