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The tetra-anionic form of ATP (ATP4-) is known to induce monovalent and divalent ion fluxes in cells that express purinergic P2X7 receptors and with sustained application of ATP it has been shown that dyes as large as 831 Da can permeate the cell membrane. The current study explores the kinetics of loading alpha,alpha-trehalose (342 Da) into ATP stimulated(More)
This paper investigates the effect of mobile phone screen size (1.65 inches-2.75 inches) on video based learning. It first examines the educational benefits of video as a teaching medium and surveys the usage and issues related with video based learning. After which, it investigates the value of video for mobile learning. It reports on an empirical(More)
The alignment of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. The LIGO project is designed to detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources by laser interferometry. There are two sites separated by 3002 km that will be operated in coincidence. At each, site laser beams(More)
Music or sound effects are often used to enhance Virtual Environments, but it is not known how this audio may influence gait speed. This study investigated the influence of audio cue tempo on treadmill walking with and without visual flow. The walking speeds of 11 individuals were recorded during exposure to a range of audio cue rates. There was a(More)
In this study, the desiccation kinetics of aqueous trehalose solutions were investigated numerically by solving the coupled heat and mass transfer problem with a moving interface using the finite element method. The free volume models for vapor pressure and mutual diffusion coefficient were incorporated into the model to account for the effect of glass(More)
Virtual Reality is being used increasingly for upper limb rehabilitation. The type of virtual objects used for reaching tasks varies widely, but there has been little work exploring the effect of different characteristics of objects on target acquisition time. This study investigates how target acquisition times vary for virtual objects with different(More)