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The tetra-anionic form of ATP (ATP4-) is known to induce monovalent and divalent ion fluxes in cells that express purinergic P2X7 receptors and with sustained application of ATP it has been shown that dyes as large as 831 Da can permeate the cell membrane. The current study explores the kinetics of loading alpha,alpha-trehalose (342 Da) into ATP stimulated(More)
Vanadate has been shown to have a number of insulin-like effects in various cells, including isolated rat adipocytes. In the present study we compared the activities of vanadate and insulin in isolated fat cells using a number of different assays of insulin-like activity. Both insulin and vanadate stimulated [2-3H]glucose incorporation into fat cell lipid(More)
This paper investigates the effect of mobile phone screen size (1.65 inches-2.75 inches) on video based learning. It first examines the educational benefits of video as a teaching medium and surveys the usage and issues related with video based learning. After which, it investigates the value of video for mobile learning. It reports on an empirical(More)
Music or sound effects are often used to enhance Virtual Environments, but it is not known how this audio may influence gait speed. This study investigated the influence of audio cue tempo on treadmill walking with and without visual flow. The walking speeds of 11 individuals were recorded during exposure to a range of audio cue rates. There was a(More)
Virtual Reality is being used increasingly for upper limb rehabilitation. The type of virtual objects used for reaching tasks varies widely, but there has been little work exploring the effect of different characteristics of objects on target acquisition time. This study investigates how target acquisition times vary for virtual objects with different(More)
In this study, the desiccation kinetics of aqueous trehalose solutions were investigated numerically by solving the coupled heat and mass transfer problem with a moving interface using the finite element method. The free volume models for vapor pressure and mutual diffusion coefficient were incorporated into the model to account for the effect of glass(More)
This paper describes the evolution of photonic integration technology towards energy efficient optical transport networks. This paper evaluates the impact of Photonic Integration technology on optical transport network design and shows that the Photonic Integration technology not only makes the network energy efficient but also reduces the TCO (total cost(More)