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The importance of using translational safety biomarkers that can predict, detect and monitor drug-induced toxicity during human trials is becoming increasingly recognized. However, suitable processes to qualify biomarkers in clinical studies have not yet been established. There is a need to define clear scientific guidelines to link biomarkers to clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Prayer is amongst the oldest and most widespread interventions used with the intention of alleviating illness and promoting good health. Given the significance of this response to illness for a large proportion of the world's population, there has been considerable interest in recent years in measuring the efficacy of intercessory prayer for the(More)
INTRODUCTION Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) is a predominant enzyme for the progressive processing of enamel extracellular matrix protein components (primarily amelogenin) during the early stages of enamel formation. So far, the recombinant porcine, mouse and bovine MMP-20 have been cloned and used extensively in the researches of tooth enamel(More)
Recommended by Michael Huebner FPGA devices have emerged as a popular platform for the rapid prototyping of biological Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) applications, offering the key requirement of reconfigurability. However, FPGAs do not efficiently realise the biologically plausible neuron and synaptic models of SNNs, and current FPGA routing structures(More)
Accurate and timely information is a key motivator in the widespread adoption of CBSE technology in Europe. Although there are overlaps and informal communications between researchers and adopters of CBSE technology in Europe, there is no systematic mechanism for information interchange between the two. CBSEnet is a European Union initiative to create an(More)
A compact implementation of a dynamic charge transfer synapse cell, capable of implementing synaptic depression, is presented. The cell is combined with a simple current mirror summing node to produce biologically plausible postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). A single charge packet is effectively transferred from the synapse to the summing node, whenever a(More)
The promise of component-based development – the development of large-scale applications from off-the-shelf software components – may remain elusive unless we complement the facilitating technologies with processes that are designed to take account – and advantage – of components right from the start. Blackbox components present a number of serious(More)
We present a programmable dynamic charge transfer synapse (CTS) in a single semiconductor device. The CTS comprises a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor operating in subthreshold and two MOS capacitors in proximity to the transistor. One of the capacitors is permanently biased in strong inversion where the associated density of charge in the well(More)
Recent work by the authors proposed compact low power synapses in hardware, based on the charge-coupling principle, that can be configured to yield a static or dynamic response. The focus of this work is to investigate the training dynamics of these synapses. Empirical models of the Post Synaptic Response (PSP), derived from hardware simulations, were(More)