Ablation of holes with diameters as small as 82 nm and very clean walls was obtained in poly(methyl methacrylate) focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar 46.9 nm compact capillary-discharge laser with a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using focused soft x-ray laser beams for the direct… (More)
The brain relies on a constant supply of glucose, its primary fuel, for optimal function. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose delivery to the brain has been postulated to maintain glucose homeostasis; however, evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic… (More)
Glucose is the primary fuel for the brain. It has been proposed that the brain senses glucose, and promotes eating behaviours when levels are low. A system regulating glucose intake, driven by hedonic responses generated in the limbic system, has been identified. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose intake has been postulated.… (More)
This working document describes activities related to the New Data Types Group of the Goddard Data Assimilation OOce (DAO) and how these activities are prioritized. Included in this document are science drivers for new data types, brief descriptions of assimilation methodologies including advanced methodologies being explored at the DAO, a list of new data… (More)
We present a simple two-chamber apparatus for avoidance training of mice which does not require a shock scrambler. This apparatus can be used for active, passive and discriminated (Go-No-GO) avoidance tasks.