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The relatively new field of stem cell biology is hampered by a lack of sufficient means to accurately determine the phenotype of cells. Cell-type-specific markers, such as cell surface proteins used for flow cytometry or fluorescence-activated cell sorting, are limited and often recognize multiple members of a stem cell lineage. We sought to develop a(More)
The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a(More)
It is well established that auto/paracrine acetylcholine (ACh) is essential for wound epithelialization, and that the mechanisms include regulation of keratinocyte motility and adhesion via nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs). Keratinocyte nAChRs can be also activated by non-canonical ligands, such as secreted mammalian Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates vital functions of T cells by acting on the nicotinic and muscarinic classes of cholinergic receptors, nAChR and mAChRs, respectively. This study was performed in murine splenic T cells. In freshly isolated CD4 and CD8 T cells, we detected mRNAs encoding α5, α9, α10, β1, β2, β4 nAChR subunits and M₁, M₃, M₄ and M₅ mAChR(More)
A loss of epidermal cohesion in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) results from autoantibody action on keratinocytes (KCs) activating the signaling kinases and executioner caspases that damage KCs, causing their shrinkage, detachment from neighboring cells, and rounding up (apoptolysis). In this study, we found that PV antibody binding leads to activation of epidermal(More)
Grover's disease (GD) is a transient or persistent, monomorphous, papulovesicular, asymptomatic or pruritic eruption classified as non-familial acantholytic disorder. Contribution of autoimmune mechanisms to GD pathogenesis remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibody-mediated autoimmunity in 11 patients with GD, 4 of which(More)
BACKGROUND Distinguishing human neural stem/progenitor cell (huNSPC) populations that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type-specific surface markers predictive of fate potential. This limits investigation of lineage-biased progenitors and their potential use as therapeutic(More)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are two forms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. CD4 T cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Smoking affects both UC and CD but with opposite effects, ameliorating UC and worsening CD. We hypothesized that the severity of gut inflammation could be modulated through T cell(More)
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a mucocutaneous blistering disease characterized by IgG autoantibodies against the stratified squamous epithelium. Current understanding of PV pathophysiology does not explain the mechanism of acantholysis in patients lacking desmoglein antibodies, which justifies a search for novel targets of pemphigus autoimmunity. We tested 264(More)