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The edge spectrum is a sensitive probe of local chemistry. Edge spectra of potassium in various chemical environments were measured, and each environment gives a unique edge spectrum. Hydrated potassium has a unique spectrum that is insensitive to counterions. Comparison of the spectra shows that the chemical state of potassium in cells differs appreciably(More)
Although considerable research has been done with biofeedback in adults, little is known of its effect in children of different ages or those with learning disabilities. This study assessed the effects of thermal biofeedback in 60 children (40 boys, 20 girls) aged 7 to 9 yr. (Mage 8-6) half of whom were learning-disabled and half, normal children matched(More)
(This is part 2, continued from " Use of harsh Wafer Probing to Evaluate Traditional Bond Pad Structures "). Goals for circuit under pad (CUP) in aluminum – silicon dioxide (Al – SiO 2) based IC pad structures include the design of metal interconnects in all layers beneath the pad Al, and the ability to withstand harsh probing and wirebonding stress without(More)
Economic challenges for small size IC design and manufacturing require: reduced die size without adding layers or other costs, bonding with Cu wire instead of Au wire, and maintained or improved reliability. Die size shrinking involves extensive use of circuit under pad (CUP) or bond over active circuitry (BOAC) on IC's having at least two levels of metal.(More)
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