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Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to(More)
Given the devastation caused by disasters and mass violence, it is critical that intervention policy be based on the most updated research findings. However, to date, no evidence-based consensus has been reached supporting a clear set of recommendations for intervention during the immediate and the mid-term post mass trauma phases. Because it is unlikely(More)
Israel has faced ongoing terrorism since the beginning of the Al Aqsa Intifada in September 2000. The authors examined risk and resiliency factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 1,117 Jews and 394 Arab adult citizens of Israel during August and September 2004 through telephone interviews. Probable PTSD was found among 6.6% of(More)
The relationship of antisocial and prosocial coping behaviors to individual and relationship well-being was prospectively examined in a sample of fire-emergency workers (FEWs) and their marital or romantic partners (69 couples). Results of hierarchical multiple regression equations indicated that FEWs' antisocial coping was related to higher levels of(More)
A sample of 382 Israeli soldiers who developed combat stress reactions (CSR) during the 1982 Israel-Lebanon War were compared with groups of carefully matched controls who did not develop CSR. Lack of social support from officers was found to be related to greater feelings of loneliness and greater likelihood of CSR in soldiers. Lack of social support from(More)
A sample of 192 financially impoverished, inner-city women was assessed for clinical depression twice during pregnancy and once postpartum. At the first and second antepartum interviews, respectively, 27.6% and 24.5% of the women were depressed, controlling for pregnancy-related somatic symptoms. Postpartum depression was found among 23.4% of women. These(More)
The authors examined the prospective influence of stress, self-esteem, and social support on the postpartum depressive symptoms of 191 inner-city women (139 European Americans and 52 African Americans) over 3 waves of data collection. Depressive symptomatology was measured by multiple indicators, including self-report and clinical scales. Women became less(More)
The relationship of self-concept (self-esteem and mastery) and social support to psychological distress was studied among 68 Israeli women immediately prior to undergoing biopsy for suspected cancer (acute stress) and 3 months later for the noncancer group (everyday stress). It was predicted that women with stronger self-concepts and more social support(More)
Behavioral change reduces risk of HIV infection and development of AIDS. We compared 206 inner-city women who were randomly assigned to a 4-session AIDS-prevention group or to one of two controls, a health-promotion group or a no-intervention group. AIDS-prevention and health-promotion groups provided information, behavioral competency training, and social(More)
We hypothesized that loss of interpersonal, financial and work resources would mediate the relationship between physical and sexual abuse, cancer-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, noncancer-related PTSD symptoms and depressive mood among women with cancer. Participants were 64 women with heterogeneous cancers (64.1% breast cancer)(More)