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Extremely halophilic archaea contain retinal-binding integral membrane proteins called bacteriorhodopsins that function as light-driven proton pumps. So far, bacteriorhodopsins capable of generating a chemiosmotic membrane potential in response to light have been demonstrated only in halophilic archaea. We describe here a type of rhodopsin derived from(More)
A nanopore-based device provides single-molecule detection and analytical capabilities that are achieved by electrophoretically driving molecules in solution through a nano-scale pore. The nanopore provides a highly confined space within which single nucleic acid polymers can be analyzed at high throughput by one of a variety of means, and the perfect(More)
Cultivation-independent surveys of ribosomal RNA genes have revealed the existence of novel microbial lineages, many with no known cultivated representatives. Ribosomal RNA-based analyses, however, often do not provide significant information beyond phylogenetic affiliation. Analysis of large genome fragments recovered directly from microbial communities(More)
Transcriptional profiling via microarrays holds great promise for toxicant classification and hazard prediction. Unfortunately, the use of different microarray platforms, protocols, and informatics often hinders the meaningful comparison of transcriptional profiling data across laboratories. One solution to this problem is to provide a low-cost and(More)
We report automated DNA sequencing in 16-channel microchips. A microchip prefilled with sieving matrix is aligned on a heating plate affixed to a movable platform. Samples are loaded into sample reservoirs by using an eight-tip pipetting device, and the chip is docked with an array of electrodes in the focal plane of a four-color scanning detection system.(More)
We have developed an approach to classify toxicants based upon their influence on profiles of mRNA transcripts. Changes in liver gene expression were examined after exposure of mice to 24 model treatments that fall into five well-studied toxicological categories: peroxisome proliferators, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, noncoplanar polychlorinated(More)
DNA sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) technology, using a polymerase or ligase enzyme as its core biochemistry, has already been incorporated in several second-generation DNA sequencing systems with significant performance. Notwithstanding the substantial success of these SBS platforms, challenges continue to limit the ability to reduce the cost of sequencing a(More)
The rapid in vivo response of both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium osmoregulated genes to an osmotic upshift was analyzed in detail by using chromosomal operon fusions. Within 10 min after the addition of 0.3 M NaCl to the culture medium, the differential rates of expression of both an S. typhimurium proU-lac fusion and a proP-lac fusion(More)
The transcriptional activity of the topA gene which codes for topoisomerase I was examined. An in vitro assay determined that the P1 promoter was dependent on the sigma 32 subunit of RNA polymerase. The transcriptional activity of the four topA promoters was examined by nuclease S1 mapping of the transcripts during a heat shock. This sigma 32-dependent(More)