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A chemical description of the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) can now be inferred with confidence from three high-resolution x-ray crystal structures. The first is the structure of the PLA2 from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) in a complex with a phosphonate transition-state analogue. This enzyme is typical of a large, well-studied(More)
The structures of several K49 PLA2 proteins have been determined and these differ as a group in several regions from the closely related D49 PLA2 enzymes. One outstanding difference is the presence of a high number of positively charged residues in the C-terminal region which combined with the overall high number of conserved lysine residues gives the(More)
Troponin, a Ca2+-sensitive complex, regulates the motions of tropomyosin on the thin filaments in many muscles. It has three subunits, each with a different architecture and function: TnC binds Ca2+; TnI binds to actin and inhibits contraction; and TnT binds one complex to each tropomyosin molecule. The troponin complex has an elongated shape with TnC and(More)
The crystal structure of a complex between a phosphonate transition-state analogue and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Naja naja atra venom has been solved and refined to a resolution of 2.0 angstroms. The identical stereochemistry of the two complexes that comprise the crystal's asymmetric unit indicates both the manner in which the transition state is(More)
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1) catalyzes the biotransformation of many low-molecular-weight compounds including industrial solvents, indoor pollutants, alcohol, and drugs. In order to understand the nature of the P450 2E1 active site, we studied the competitive inhibition of the P450 2E1-catalyzed N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylation by alcohols and(More)
The role played by the outer mitochondrial membrane (OM) cytochrome b5 heme propionate groups in the electrostatic binding between OM cytochrome b5 and horse heart cytochrome c was investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. To achieve these aims, 13C-labeled heme OM cytochrome b5 was expressed in Escherichia coli as previously described(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) participates in a wide range of cellular processes including inflammation and transmembrane signaling. A human nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (hnps-PLA2) has been identified that is found in high concentrations in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in the plasma of patients with septic shock. This enzyme is(More)
When the reduction potential of cytochrome b5 is measured with the aid of several different surface-modified electrodes that function on the basis of electrostatic interactions with the protein, the resultant values have been consistently more positive (40-100 mV) than the reduction potentials measured with potentiometric methods. In this paper, we report(More)
Histological images from the longitudinal section of four diseased coronary arteries were used, for the first time, to study the pulsatile blood flow distribution within the lumen of the arteries by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Results indicate a strong dependence of the hemodynamics on the morphology of atherosclerotic lesion. Distinctive(More)