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Visual search for an edge or line element differing in orientation from a background of other edge or line elements can be performed rapidly and effortlessly. In this study, based on psychophysical measurements with ten human observers, threshold values of the angle between a target and background line elements were obtained as functions of(More)
We investigated the blur tolerance of human observers for stimuli modulated along the isoluminant red-green, the isoluminant yellow-blue, and the luminance (black-white) direction in color space. We report the following results: (i) Blur difference thresholds for red-green and luminance stimuli (of equal cone contrast) are very similar and as low as 0.5 min(More)
Perceptual transparency was measured in two experiments by using simulations of illuminated surfaces presented on a CRT monitor. In a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, observers viewed two simulated Mondrians in temporal sequence. In one sequence the Mondrian was simulated to be partially covered by a transparent filter; in the other sequence the(More)
Cone-excitation ratios for pairs of surfaces are almost invariant under changes in illumination and offer a possible basis for color constancy [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 257, 115 (1994)]. We extend this idea to the perception of transparency on the basis of the close analogy between the changes in color signals that occur for surfaces when the(More)
This study concerns the roles of absolute and relative orientation in determining detectability of a line-element target in a background field of uniformly oriented line elements. Target detectability was determined as a function of background-field orientation, sampled at 5 deg intervals, for three levels of orientation contrast--the difference between(More)
A line-element target differing sufficiently in orientation from a background of line elements can be visually detected easily and quickly; orientation thresholds for such detection are lowest when the background elements are all vertical or all horizontal. A simple quantitative model of this performance was constructed from three processing stages: (1)(More)
One approach to camera characterization is to attempt to recover the spectral properties of the surfaces in a scene and then compute the tristimulus values from these estimated reflectances. This paper addresses the question of whether such spectral-based characterization methods can outperform traditional characterization methods. In this paper we have(More)
We investigate methods for the recovery of reflectance spectra from the responses of trichromatic camera systems and the application of these methods to the problem of camera characterization. The recovery of reflectance from colorimetric data is an ill-posed problem, and a unique solution requires additional constraints. We introduce a novel method for(More)