Stephen Wengraitis

Learn More
The UV doses of Americans were never measured, but are needed for assessing the risks of UV-related health effects. We calculated these doses using a novel approach. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) recorded the activity profiles of 9386 Americans over 24 months to assess their exposure to(More)
The biologically effective global solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) measurements from a multiband UVR monitor and a conventional broadband UVR monitor are compared. The measurements were performed during the varied weather conditions of June 1995. We compared the daily total exposures measured by both instruments, as well as the ratio of the measured doses(More)
The ultraviolet radiation component in the solar spectrum varies greatly with season. In the summer, the significant short-wavelength (UV-B) radiation at midday can produce erythema in sensitive skin in less than 20 min in middle latitudes, and yet in winter months, the same midday exposure dose would require hours of exposure. The challenge for public(More)
Public health concerns such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, bioterrorism, pandemic influenza, and sick building syndrome have brought about increased interest in the use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to prevent the spread of airborne infection. UVGI lamps require that radiometric measurements be performed to ensure their safe and(More)
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation can be used to prevent airborne transmission of infectious diseases. A common application is to irradiate upper-room areas, by passing air from the lower room into the irradiated zone. Well-designed systems do not expose people directly; however, some UV radiation may be reflected off ceiling tiles and wall paints into the(More)
A 2010 study exposed Staphylococcus aureus to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thermal heating from pulsed xenon flash lamps. The results suggested that disinfection could be caused not only by photochemical changes from UV radiation, but also by photophysical stress damage caused by the disturbance from incoming pulses. The study called for more research in(More)
In recent years the need to standardize measurement protocols for quantifying the degree of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection provided by clothing has led to the introduction of a number of standards around the world. To date, these standards have specified spectral measurements of UVR transmission by clothing and fabrics. Development of a standard(More)
  • 1