Stephen Wedgwood

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Recent studies implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions and H(2)O(2) in the proliferation of systemic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the role of ROS in SMC proliferation within the pulmonary circulation remains unclear. We investigated the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential SMC mitogen, on ROS production and(More)
The use of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to alter the regulation of other endothelially derived mediators of vascular tone, such as endothelin-1 (ET-1). However, the interaction between NO and ET-1 appears to be complex and remains incompletely understood. One of the major actions of NO is the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) with(More)
We have previously demonstrated increased fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression in a lamb model of increased pulmonary blood flow secondary to congenital heart disease, which may contribute to the associated increases in pulmonary arterial muscularization. However, the mechanisms underlying these increases in FGF-2 expression remain to be(More)
Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) decreases nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in vivo and that this inhibition is associated with rebound pulmonary hypertension upon acute withdrawal of inhaled NO. We have also demonstrated that inhaled NO elevates plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and that pretreatment with PD156707,(More)
Several manifestations of neonatal pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular remodeling, resulting in increased muscularity of the small pulmonary arteries. Abnormal structural development of the pulmonary vasculature has been implicated in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Increased plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor(More)
In the pulmonary vasculature, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) degrades cGMP and inhibits nitric oxide-mediated, cGMP-dependent vasorelaxation. We previously reported that ventilation with 100% O2 increased PDE5 activity in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of pulmonary hypertension lambs (PPHN) more than in control lambs. In the present study, PA smooth muscle cells(More)
Exposure of newborn mice to high inspired oxygen elicits a distinct phenotype of compromised alveolar and vascular development, although lethality during long-term exposure is lower in newborns compared to adults. As the effects of hyperoxia are mediated by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, we hypothesized that newborn mice may exhibit(More)
An increasing number of studies implicate oxidative stress in the development of endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Further, this oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with alterations in both the endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways such that bioavailable NO is decreased and ET-1(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) activity are increased in a lamb model of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). These events can trigger hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling in response to hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute(More)
Recent data has indicated that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has the ability to decrease endogenous NO production by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for its generation, NO synthase (NOS). Our previous studies have indicated that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the inhibitory event. However, the mechanisms for(More)