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Recent studies implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions and H(2)O(2) in the proliferation of systemic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the role of ROS in SMC proliferation within the pulmonary circulation remains unclear. We investigated the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential SMC mitogen, on ROS production and(More)
AIMS Oxygen is a pulmonary vasodilator, but data suggest high O(2) concentrations impede that response. We previously reported 24 h of 100% O(2) increased phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (FPASMC) and in ventilated neonatal lambs. PDE5 degrades cyclic GMP (cGMP) and inhibits nitric oxide (NO)-mediated(More)
Similar to infants born with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), there is an increase in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in an ovine model of PPHN. These abnormalities lead to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Our previous studies have demonstrated that(More)
Ligation of the ductus arteriosus in utero produces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in fetal and newborn lambs. However, the mechanisms producing these vascular changes are not well defined. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as mediators of smooth muscle cell proliferation, we hypothesized that increased formation of(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression and activity are decreased in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). We sought to determine the impact of mechanical ventilation with O(2) with or without inhaled NO (iNO) or recombinant human SOD (rhSOD) on eNOS in the ductal ligation model of PPHN. PPHN lambs and age-matched(More)
Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) decreases nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in vivo and that this inhibition is associated with rebound pulmonary hypertension upon acute withdrawal of inhaled NO. We have also demonstrated that inhaled NO elevates plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and that pretreatment with PD156707,(More)
Several manifestations of neonatal pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular remodeling, resulting in increased muscularity of the small pulmonary arteries. Abnormal structural development of the pulmonary vasculature has been implicated in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Increased plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor(More)
NADPH oxidase is a major source of superoxide anions in the pulmonary arteries (PA). We previously reported that intratracheal SOD improves oxygenation and restores endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) function in lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). In this study, we determined the effects of the NADPH oxidase(More)
The use of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to alter the regulation of other endothelially derived mediators of vascular tone, such as endothelin-1 (ET-1). However, the interaction between NO and ET-1 appears to be complex and remains incompletely understood. One of the major actions of NO is the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) with(More)
We have previously demonstrated increased fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression in a lamb model of increased pulmonary blood flow secondary to congenital heart disease, which may contribute to the associated increases in pulmonary arterial muscularization. However, the mechanisms underlying these increases in FGF-2 expression remain to be(More)