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Recent studies implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions and H(2)O(2) in the proliferation of systemic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the role of ROS in SMC proliferation within the pulmonary circulation remains unclear. We investigated the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential SMC mitogen, on ROS production and(More)
AIMS Oxygen is a pulmonary vasodilator, but data suggest high O(2) concentrations impede that response. We previously reported 24 h of 100% O(2) increased phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (FPASMC) and in ventilated neonatal lambs. PDE5 degrades cyclic GMP (cGMP) and inhibits nitric oxide (NO)-mediated(More)
Similar to infants born with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), there is an increase in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in an ovine model of PPHN. These abnormalities lead to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Our previous studies have demonstrated that(More)
Ligation of the ductus arteriosus in utero produces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in fetal and newborn lambs. However, the mechanisms producing these vascular changes are not well defined. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as mediators of smooth muscle cell proliferation, we hypothesized that increased formation of(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression and activity are decreased in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). We sought to determine the impact of mechanical ventilation with O(2) with or without inhaled NO (iNO) or recombinant human SOD (rhSOD) on eNOS in the ductal ligation model of PPHN. PPHN lambs and age-matched(More)
A lamb model of pulmonary hypertension, developed by inserting an aortopulmonary vascular graft (shunt), displays vascular remodeling and increased pulmonary blood flow characteristic of children with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a smooth muscle cell mitogen,(More)
Several manifestations of neonatal pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular remodeling, resulting in increased muscularity of the small pulmonary arteries. Abnormal structural development of the pulmonary vasculature has been implicated in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Increased plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor(More)
Similar to infants born with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), there is an increase in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased cGMP-mediated vasodilation in an ovine model of PPHN. These abnormalities lead to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Our previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS)(More)
RATIONALE Hyperoxic ventilation in the management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) can result in the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anions, which can inactivate nitric oxide (NO) and cause vasoconstriction and oxidation. OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of intratracheal recombinant human superoxide(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein levels increase during late gestation and then decrease postnatally in sheep lung parenchyma. The increase in fluid shear stress at birth, resulting from increased pulmonary blood flow, is an important mediator of postnatal eNOS gene expression. Our objective was to identify factors stimulating eNOS(More)