Stephen Walsh

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Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is important and relatively new. Quality gives us an estimate of the likelihood that the results are a valid estimate of the truth. We present an annotated bibliography of scales and checklists developed to assess quality. Twenty-five scales and nine checklists have been developed to assess(More)
SS is a prevalent and underdiagnosed systemic disease that primarily affects epithelial tissue. It may affect renal function either as epithelial disease causing tubulointerstitial nephritis or as an immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy. These lesions may cause a variety of clinical features, both overt and occult. The epithelial disease is mediated by B(More)
Magnesium is essential to the proper functioning of numerous cellular processes. Magnesium ion (Mg2+) deficits, as reflected in hypomagnesemia, can cause neuromuscular irritability, seizures and cardiac arrhythmias. With normal Mg2+ intake, homeostasis is maintained primarily through the regulated reabsorption of Mg2+ by the thick ascending limb of Henle’s(More)
BACKGROUND Kidney transplantation is associated with an increased risk of bone fracture and rapid loss of bone mineral density after kidney transplantation. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS Patients were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 46) or control (no treatment; n = 47) groups. Patients were stratified according to(More)
The free distribution of seeds and tools is the standard approach to agricultural recovery. The predominance of this approach is partly attributable to the: (1) perception that farmer seed quality is poor, (2) insistence on seed certification, (3) promotion of researcher varieties, (4) misdiagnosis of unavailability, (5) difficulty accessing farmer seed,(More)
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used widely to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune disease. Hypertension and renal tubule dysfunction, including hyperkalemia, hypercalciuria and acidosis, often complicate their use. These side effects resemble familial hyperkalemic hypertension, a genetic(More)
This article reviews the current understanding of the mechanisms of calcineurin inhibitor-induced hypertension. Already early after the introduction of cyclosporine in the 1980s, vasoconstriction, sympathetic excitation and sodium retention by the kidney had been shown to play a role in this form of hypertension. The vasoconstrictive effects of calcineurin(More)
Distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) can lead to rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults if undetected. This disorder is normally diagnosed by means of an oral ammonium chloride-loading test; however, the procedure often leads to vomiting and abandonment of the test. In this study, we assess an alternative, more palatable approach to test urinary(More)
BACKGROUND Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a common autoimmune condition which primarily affects epithelial tissue, often including the kidney causing either tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) or more rarely, an immune complex related glomerulonephritis. METHODS We describe the clinical, biochemical and histological characteristics of 12 patients with(More)
Centre for Nephrology and Department of Physiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF and Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK, Institute of Physiology and Center for Integrative Human Physiology,(More)