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In the absence of respiratory distress and massive visceral herniation, the diagnosis of blunt diaphragmatic disruption can be difficult. This is particularly true for diaphragmatic injuries confined to the right hemidiaphragm. Because diagnostic delay and strangulation are associated with notable increases in mortality and morbidity, it is important to(More)
Recent dielectric measurements suggest that the electromechanical effect in wet (fluid saturated) bone is not due to a piezoelectric effect. This would imply that the electromechanical effect observed in wet bone is due to a streaming potential and is therefore dependent on fluid flow in stressed bone. A model for fluid flow in bone in vitro is presented.(More)
Frontal airbag interaction with the head and neck of the Hybrid III family of dummies may involve a non-biofidelic interaction. Researchers have found that the deploying airbag may become entrapped in the hollow cavity behind the dummy chin. This study evaluated a prototype neck shield design, the Flap Neck Shield, for biofidelic response and the ability to(More)
This study was conducted to resolve discrepancies and fill in gaps in the biomechanical impact response of the human abdomen to frontal impact loading. Three types of abdominal loading were studied: rigid-bar impacts, seatbelt loading, and close-proximity (out-of-position) airbag deployments. Eleven rigid-bar free-back tests were performed into the mid and(More)
The biofidelity of the Ford Motor Company human body finite element (FE) model in side impact simulations was analyzed and evaluated following the procedures outlined in ISO technical report TR9790. This FE model, representing a 50th percentile adult male, was used to simulate the biomechanical impact tests described in ISO-TR9790. These laboratory tests(More)
To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these(More)
The purpose of this paper is to compare the biofidelity rating schemes of ISO/TR9790 and the NHTSA Bio Rank System. This paper describes the development of new impact response corridors being proposed for ISO/TR9790 from the results of a recent series of side-impact sled tests. The response data were analyzed by methods consistent with ISO/TR9790, including(More)
Changes in vehicle safety design technology and the increasing use of seat-belts and airbag restraint systems have gradually changed the relative proportion of lower extremity injuries. These changes in real world injuries have renewed interest and the need of further investigation into occupant injury mechanisms and biomechanical impact responses of the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has identified key predictors of elevated abdominal injury risk in seat belt-restrained child vehicle occupants; however these data cannot be used to isolate specific mechanisms or sources of injury to suggest strategies for prevention. METHODS Using a large child-focused crash surveillance system, cases of seat(More)
ABSTRACT A retrospective analysis of the NASS/CDS database from 1993 to 2000 was used to investigate lower extremity injury in lateral impact. The analysis includes the study of the injury patterns, crash characteristics and the interactions between the occupant and the vehicle interior, including injuries to the farside occupants. The findings include(More)