Stephen W. Raudenbush

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It is hypothesized that collective efficacy, defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good, is linked to reduced violence. This hypothesis was tested on a 1995 survey of 8782 residents of 343 neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. Multilevel analyses showed that a measure of collective(More)
PURPOSE To determine the relationship between urban sprawl, health, and health-related behaviors. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis using hierarchical modeling to relate characteristics of individuals and places to levels of physical activity, obesity, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. SETTING U.S. counties (448)(More)
This study links police records, vital statistics, census data, and an original survey of 8,872 Chicago residents to assess an integrated theoretical perspective on neighborhood-level variations in homicide. We highlight two neglected dimensions of neighborhood context – social processes and spatial interdependence. Structural characteristics in 1990 and(More)
once again has assumed priority in the social sciences.1 The most visible inquiry has been played out in urban sociology and criminology. According to the “broken windows” theory of urban decline (Wilson and Kelling 1982), minor forms of public disorder lead to serious crime and a downward spiral of urban decay (Kelling and Coles 1996). The presumed reason(More)
OBJECTIVE The age at which a child receives a cochlear implant seems to be one of the more important predictors of his or her speech and language outcomes. However, understanding the association between age at implantation and child outcomes is complex because a child's age, length of device use, and age at implantation are highly related. In this study, we(More)
Differences in maternal characteristics only partially explain the lower birth weights of infants of African-American women. It is hypothesized that economic and social features of urban neighborhoods may further account for these differences. The authors conducted a household survey of 8,782 adults residing in 343 Chicago, Illinois, neighborhoods to assess(More)
We analyzed key individual, family, and neighborhood factors to assess competing hypotheses regarding racial/ethnic gaps in perpetrating violence. From 1995 to 2002, we collected 3 waves of data on 2974 participants aged 8 [corrected] to 25 years living in 180 Chicago neighborhoods, augmented by a separate community survey of 8782 Chicago residents. The(More)
This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating scales, a technique that generates interval level measures and allows the(More)
This article considers the policy of retaining low-achieving children in kindergarten rather than promoting them to first grade. Under the stable-unit-treatment-value assumption (SUTVA) as articulated by Rubin, each child at risk of retention has two potential outcomes: Y(1) if retained and Y(0) if promoted. However, SUTVA is questionable because a child’s(More)