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As population-based epidemiologic studies may acquire images from thousands of subjects, automated image post-processing is needed. However, error in these methods may be biased and related to subject characteristics relevant to the research question. Here, we compare two automated methods of brain extraction against manually segmented images and evaluate(More)
Healthy aging is thought to reflect the combined influence of environmental factors (lifestyle choices) and genetic factors. To explore the genetic contribution, we undertook a genome-wide association study of exceptional longevity (EL) in 1055 centenarians and 1267 controls. Using these data, we built a genetic model that includes 150 single-nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND Hippocampal atrophy--particularly of the CA1 region--may be useful as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) or the risk for AD. The extent to which the AD hippocampus can be distinguished in vivo from changes due to normal aging or other processes that affect the hippocampus is of clinical importance and is an area of active research. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Population stratification can cause spurious associations in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), and occurs when differences in allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are due to ancestral differences between cases and controls rather than the trait of interest. Principal components analysis (PCA) is the established(More)
BACKGROUND Hippocampal changes may be a useful biomarker for Alzheimer's disease if they are specific to dementia sub-type. We compare hippocampal volume and shape in population-based incident cases of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (VaD). METHODS Participants are Japanese-American men from the Honolulu Asia Aging Study. The following analysis(More)
Because invasive species threaten the integrity of natural ecosystems, a major goal in ecology is to develop predictive models to determine which species may become widespread and where they may invade. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence the local pattern of spread for specific invaders and the factors(More)
The spatial distribution of a species can be characterized at many different spatial scales, from fine-scale measures of local population density to coarse-scale geographical-range structure. Previous studies have shown a degree of correlation in species' distribution patterns across narrow ranges of scales, making it possible to predict fine-scale(More)
BACKGROUND Imputation of missing genotypes is becoming a very popular solution for synchronizing genotype data collected with different microarray platforms but the effect of ethnic background, subject ascertainment, and amount of missing data on the accuracy of imputation are not well understood. RESULTS We evaluated the accuracy of the program IMPUTE to(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous associations between genetic loci and individual phenotypes; however, relatively few GWAS have attempted to detect pleiotropic associations, in which loci are simultaneously associated with multiple distinct phenotypes. We show that pleiotropic associations can be directly modeled via the(More)
BACKGROUND One of the challenges of the analysis of pooling-based genome wide association studies is to identify authentic associations among potentially thousands of false positive associations. RESULTS We present a hierarchical and modular approach to the analysis of genome wide genotype data that incorporates quality control, linkage disequilibrium,(More)