Measurements of the production and consumption of organic material have been a focus of aquatic science for more than 80 years. Over the last century, a variety of approaches have been developed and employed for measuring rates of gross primary production (Pg), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (Pn = Pg − R) within aquatic ecosystems. Here, we… (More)
Shallow, seaward portions of modern coral reefs produce about 4 kilograms of calcium carbonate per square meter per year, and protected areas produce about 0.8 kilogram per square meter per year. The difference is probably largely a function of water motion. The more rapid rate, equivalent to a maximum vertical accretion of 3 to 5 millimeters per year,… (More)
Articles T he process of eutrophication represents the bio-geochemical response to heavy nutrient loading (Nixon 1995, Cloern 2001). Typical consequences of eutrophication include (a) elevated primary production in response to elevated nutrient delivery and (b) elevated respiration in response to the rapid production of organic matter. In cases of… (More)
Corals and algal pavement produce calcium carbonate more slowly on the windward reef slope of Enewetak Atoll than on the reef flat despite the high standing crop of reef-building organisms on the slope. The capacity of reefs to remain at or near sea level is therefore not determined primarily by growth on the seaward slope.
Marine macrophyte biomass production, burial, oxidation, calcium carbonate dissolution, and metabolically accelerated diffusion of carbon dioxide across the air-sea interface may combine to sequester at least 10(9) tons of carbon per year in the ocean. This carbon sink may partially account for discrepancies in extant global carbon budgets.
The strontium to calcium ratio of skeletal aragonite in three genera of reef-building corals varies as a simple function of temperature and the strontium to calcium ratio of the incubation water. The strontiumlcalcium distribution coefficients of coral aragonite apparently differ from the corresponding coefficient of inorganically precipitated aragonite.… (More)
This work describes a genetic programming (GP) approach that creates vegetation indices (VI's) to automatically detect the sum of healthy, dry, and dead vegetation. Nowadays, it is acknowledged that VI's are the most popular method for extracting vegetation information from satellite imagery. In particular, erosion models like the " Revised Universal Soil… (More)
Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species).… (More)
The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here, we introduce the excluded volume reaction-diffusion master equation (vRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a… (More)