Stephen Turnock

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Substantial changes in anthropogenic aerosols and precursor gas emissions have occurred over recent decades due to the implementation of air pollution control legislation and economic growth. The response of atmospheric aerosols to these changes and the impact on climate are poorly constrained, particularly in studies using detailed aerosol(More)
Sloshing occurs when a tank is partially filled with a liquid and subjected to an external excitation force [1]. Ships with large ballast tanks and liquid bulk cargo carriers, such as very large crude carriers (VLCCs), are at risk of exposure to sloshing loads during their operational life [2]. The inclusion of structural members within the tanks dampens(More)
An understanding of liquid sloshing is of primary concern to the design and operation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carriers. Safe operation of LNG carriers requires the knowledge of global and local pressures imposed by the sloshing liquid. The most general method available to quantify such sloshing loads is the solution of the Navier Stokes system of(More)
A non-linear pendulum model is developed to represent the motion of a sloshing fluid in real time. The forces imposed by the sloshing fluid are identified using multiphase RANS CFD simulations and subsequently included in the pendulum sloshing model. The pendulum sloshing model was used to simulate sloshing induced by linear and angular motions at and near(More)
In recent years technological innovations has allowed large improvements to be made in sail design and construction. Sails and in particular kite-sails have application for sport, ships’ auxiliary propulsion and even power generation. Sails are divided into upwind and downwind sails (Fig.1), where upwind sails operate as lifting surfaces with small angles(More)
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of photo-activated toxicity induced after administration of two known melanin-binding phototoxic compounds, sparfloxacin (SPX) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), followed or not by UVA/Vis exposure, in pigmented rats (Long Evans: LE) and albino rats (Sprague Dawley: SD). Groups of three rats were treated(More)
Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) is a major risk factor to the global burden of disease. Previous studies have focussed on present day or future health burdens attributed to ambient PM2.5. Few studies have estimated changes in PM2.5 and attributable health burdens over(More)
When a structure is placed on the seabed, tidal or other marine current induce areas of flow acceleration and deceleration. This may result in movement of the seabed substrate (often sand) near the structure. It would be useful to be able to assess possible scour. For example when considering the protection of wreck and other marine sites of archaeological(More)
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