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In response to a need for a general catalog of genome variation to address the large-scale sampling designs required by association studies, gene mapping and evolutionary biology, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has established the dbSNP database [S.T.Sherry, M.Ward and K. Sirotkin (1999) Genome Res., 9, 677-679]. Submissions to(More)
SUMMARY The variant call format (VCF) is a generic format for storing DNA polymorphism data such as SNPs, insertions, deletions and structural variants, together with rich annotations. VCF is usually stored in a compressed manner and can be indexed for fast data retrieval of variants from a range of positions on the reference genome. The format was(More)
We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
We describe a map of 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the human genome, providing an average density on available sequence of one SNP every 1.9 kilobases. These SNPs were primarily discovered by two projects: The SNP Consortium and the analysis of clone overlaps by the International Human Genome Sequencing(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Length changes in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are potentially useful markers for inferring the evolutionary history of populations. One such length change is a nine base pair (9-bp) deletion that is located in the intergenic region between the COII gene and the Lysine tRNA gene (COII/tRNALys intergenic region). This deletion has been used as a genetic(More)
We have studied a genome-wide set of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequency measures for African-American, East Asian, and European-American samples. For this analysis we derived a simple, closed mathematical formulation for the spectrum of expected allele frequencies when the sampled populations have experienced nonstationary demographic(More)
Patterns of gene differences among humans contain information about the demographic history of our species. Haploid loci like mitochondrial DNA and the nonrecombining part of the Y chromosome show a pattern indicating expansion from a population of only several thousand during the late middle or early upper Pleistocene. Nuclear short tandem repeat loci also(More)
The insertion of mobile elements into the genome represents a new class of genetic markers for the study of human evolution. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) have amplified to a copy number of about 100,000 over the last 100 million years of mammalian evolution and comprise approximately 15% of the human genome. The majority of LINE-1 (L1) elements within(More)
The most critical and controversial feature of the African origin hypothesis of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution is the relatively recent age of about 200 ka inferred for the human mtDNA ancestor. If this age is wrong, and the actual age instead approaches 1 million years ago, then the controversy abates. Reliable estimates of the age of the human(More)