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The time- and orientational-dependence of phosphocreatine (PCr) diffusion was measured using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) as a means of non-invasively probing the intracellular diffusive barriers of skeletal muscle. Red and white skeletal muscle from fish was used because fish muscle cells are very large, which facilitates the(More)
We examined the influence of intracellular diffusion of O(2) and high-energy phosphate (HEP) molecules on the scaling with body mass of the post-exercise whole-animal rate of O(2) consumption (V(O(2))) and muscle arginine phosphate (AP) resynthesis rate, as well as muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity, in three groups of tail-flipping crustaceans. Two size(More)
Metabolic processes are often represented as a group of metabolites that interact through enzymatic reactions, thus forming a network of linked biochemical pathways. Implicit in this view is that diffusion of metabolites to and from enzymes is very fast compared with reaction rates, and metabolic fluxes are therefore almost exclusively dictated by catalytic(More)
The scaling of mitochondrial distribution, citrate synthase activity, and post-contractile glycogen recovery was examined in muscle fibers of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. The fast-twitch muscle fibers of C. sapidus can reach extremely large dimensions, which may impose constraints on aerobic metabolic processes. However, muscle cells from small crabs(More)
In some fish, hypertrophic growth of white muscle leads to very large fibers. The associated low-fiber surface area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) and potentially long intracellular diffusion distances may influence the rate of aerobic processes. We examined the effect of intracellular metabolite diffusion on mass-specific scaling of aerobic capacity and an aerobic(More)
Muscle fibers that power swimming in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus are <80 microm in diameter in juveniles but grow hypertrophically, exceeding 600 microm in adults. Therefore, intracellular diffusion distances become progressively greater as the animals grow and, in adults, vastly exceed those in most cells. This developmental trajectory makes C.(More)
Muscle fiber type, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition, capillary density (CD) and citrate synthase (CS) activity were investigated in predominantly slow-twitch (soleus or SOL) and fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus or EDL) skeletal muscle from mice with inherited differences in hypoxic exercise tolerance. Striking differences in hypoxic(More)
Diameters of some white locomotor muscle fibers in the adult blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, exceed 500 microm whereas juvenile white fibers are <100 microm. It was hypothesized that aerobically dependent processes, such as metabolic recovery following burst contractions, will be significantly impeded in the large white fibers. In addition, dark aerobic(More)
This study investigated the influence of fiber size on the distribution of nuclei and fiber growth patterns in white muscle of black sea bass, Centropristis striata, ranging in body mass from 0.45 to 4840 g. Nuclei were counted in 1 μm optical sections using confocal microscopy of DAPIand Acridine-Orange-stained muscle fibers. Mean fiber diameter increased(More)
The effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (1/2 atmospheric pressure) on high energy phosphate (HEP) compounds was investigated in slow (soleus; SOL) and fast twitch (extensor digitorum longus; EDL) muscle from 3 strains of mice with large differences in hypoxic exercise tolerance (HET). Phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) decreased 16-29% following hypoxia(More)