Stephen T. Kinsey

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Most marine mammals are hypothesized to routinely dive within their aerobic dive limit (ADL). Mammals that regularly perform deep, long-duration dives have locomotor muscles with elevated myoglobin concentrations that are composed of predominantly large, slow-twitch (Type I) fibers with low mitochondrial volume densities (V(mt)). These features contribute(More)
When a marine mammal dives, breathing and locomotion are mechanically uncoupled, and its locomotor muscle must power swimming when oxygen is limited. The morphology of that muscle provides insight into both its oxygen storage capacity and its rate of oxygen consumption. This study investigated the m. longissimus dorsi, an epaxial swimming muscle, in the(More)
Diameters of some white locomotor muscle fibers in the adult blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, exceed 500 microm whereas juvenile white fibers are <100 microm. It was hypothesized that aerobically dependent processes, such as metabolic recovery following burst contractions, will be significantly impeded in the large white fibers. In addition, dark aerobic(More)
A fundamental principle of physiology is that cells are small in order to minimize diffusion distances for O(2) and intracellular metabolites. In skeletal muscle, it has long been recognized that aerobic fibers that are used for steady state locomotion tend to be smaller than anaerobic fibers that are used for burst movements. This tendency reflects the(More)
Muscle fibers that power swimming in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus are <80 microm in diameter in juveniles but grow hypertrophically, exceeding 600 microm in adults. Therefore, intracellular diffusion distances become progressively greater as the animals grow and, in adults, vastly exceed those in most cells. This developmental trajectory makes C.(More)
We investigated the influence of intracellular diffusion on muscle fiber design in several swimming and non-swimming brachyuran crabs. Species with sustained swimming behavior had aerobic dark fibers subdivided into small metabolic functional units, creating short diffusion distances necessary to support the high rates of aerobic ATP turnover associated(More)
Skeletal muscle fibre size is highly variable, and while diffusion appears to limit maximal fibre size, there is no paradigm for the control of minimal size. The optimal fibre size hypothesis posits that the reduced surface area to volume in larger fibres reduces the metabolic cost of maintaining the membrane potential, and so fibres attain an optimal size(More)
The time- and orientation-dependence of metabolite diffusion in giant muscle fibers of the lobster Panulirus argus was examined using (31)P- and (1)H-pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance. The (31)P resonance for arginine phosphate and the (1)H resonances for betaine, arginine/arginine phosphate and -CH(2)/-CH groups were suitable for measurement(More)
Muscle fiber hypertrophic growth can lead to an increase in the myonuclear domain (MND), leading to greater diffusion distances within the cytoplasmic volume that each nucleus services. We tested the hypothesis that hypertrophic growth in the white muscle of fishes was associated with increases in the mean DNA content of nuclei, which may be a strategy to(More)
  • B Pathi, S T Kinsey, M E Howdeshell, C Priester, R S McNeill, B R Locke
  • 2012
Diffusion plays a prominent role in governing both rates of aerobic metabolic fluxes and mitochondrial organization in muscle fibers. However, there is no mechanism to explain how the non-homogeneous mitochondrial distributions that are prevalent in skeletal muscle arise. We propose that spatially variable degradation with dependence on O(2) concentration,(More)