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The proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed in neurons in response to direct stimulation by growth factors and neurotransmitters. In order to determine whether the c-fos protein (Fos) and Fos-related proteins can be induced in response to polysynaptic activation, rat hindlimb motor/sensory cortex was stimulated electrically and Fos expression examined(More)
Glycogen concentrations were measured by fluorescence enzymatic assay in rat brains fixed by focused microwave irradiation Regional glycogen concentrations varied 2.5 fold, ranging from 27.1 nmol glucosyl units/mg protein in the striatum to 52.3 nmol/mg protein in the cerebellum and 69.9 nmol/mg protein in the pons-medulla; other regions were intermediate(More)
Brain glycogen stores are localized primarily to glia and undergo continuous utilization and resynthesis. To study the function of glycogen under normal conditions in brain, we developed an autoradiographic method of demonstrating local-glycogen utilization in the awake rat. The method employs labeling of brain glycogen with 14C(3,4)glucose, in situ(More)
A 44-year-old man with treated neurosyphilis presented with subclinical status epilepticus (SE) refractory to intravenous high-dose lorazepam, phenytoin, and valproic acid over 4 days. Ketamine infusion was instituted after low-dose propofol sedation with gradual control of electrographic seizures over 72h. Reevaluation 3 months later revealed diffuse(More)
The induction of c-fos mRNA was assessed using Northern blots and in situ hybridization in adult rats administered hypertonic saline (HS) and isotonic saline (IS). HS induced c-fos mRNA in magnocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVNm), parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVNp), supraoptic nucleus (SON), and lamina terminalis (LMT). This occurred within 5(More)
Microwave fixation in situ was used to assess regional glycogen and glucose stores in normal rat brain. Glycogen levels were highest in the cerebellum and pons/medulla (38.0 and 35.6 nmol/mg protein), and lowest in the striatum and cerebral cortex (17.4 and 23.6 nmol/mg protein respectively). Glucose concentrations paralleled glycogen, ranging from 5.9 to(More)
2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) studies have been most useful in mapping activated regions of the nervous system. Cellular localization studies using 2DG have been less rewarding, but results are consistent with current views that increases of 2DG accumulation produced by synaptic activation represent increases in glycolytic glucose metabolism occurring mainly in(More)
Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) was examined in the rat retina by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry during prenatal and postnatal development. NPY-LI appears late in gestation (embryonic day [E18]), at which time it is present in small quantities (0.038 +/- 0.005 pm/mg protein) and the NPY-LI is confined to cells in the ganglion cell(More)
Retinal neurons that express the immediate early gene c-fos after light exposure were characterized by neurotransmitter content using histochemical and immunocytochemical staining. In Northern blots the amount of c-fos mRNA peaked at 30 min, but remained detectable 60 min following light stimulation. Fos proteins were seen in the inner nuclear and ganglion(More)
In this study we examined the cerebellar response to mild traumatic brain injury by assessing microglial activation and Purkinje cell loss. Activated microglia were identified using the antibodies OX-42 and ED-1 as well as isolectin B4. The anti-Purkinje cell antibody PEP-19 was used to evaluate Purkinje cell loss after injury. The mechanism of cell injury(More)